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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00912
NameCarbon dioxide
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionCarbon dioxide (CO2) is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganisms. Traditionally, the carbonation in beer and sparkling wine comes about through natural fermentation of carbohydrates, but some manufacturers carbonate these drinks artificially. The production of CO2 by yeast breaking down carbohydrates is the reason bread rises. Gluten chains in the bread hold the carbon dioxide in creating the airiness of the bread.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Carbon oxide
  • Carbon-12 dioxide
  • Carbonic acid anhydride
  • Carbonic acid gas
  • Carbonic anhydride
  • CO(2)
  • CO2
  • [CO2]
  • e 290
  • e-290
  • e290
  • R-744
  • Anhydride, carbonic
  • Dioxide, carbon
CAS number124-38-9
WeightAverage: 44.0095
Monoisotopic: 43.989829244
InChI KeyCURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/CO2/c2-1-3
IUPAC Namemethanedione
Traditional IUPAC Namecarbon dioxide
Chemical FormulaCO2
SMILESO=C=O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassOther non-metal organides
Sub ClassOther non-metal oxides
Direct ParentOther non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Other non-metal oxide
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateGas
Charge0
Melting point-56.5 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility1.48 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP0.83 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility186 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS0.63ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity6.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Golgi
  • extracellular
  • mitochondrion
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • peroxisome
  • nucleus
  • vacuole
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
OdorlessFDB030738
SMPDB Pathways
Beer ReactionsPW002719 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acidsPW002403 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (docosanoyl)PW002408 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (icosanoyl)PW002434 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (stearoyl)PW002435 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Arginine and proline metabolismec00330 Map00330
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acidsec01040 Map01040
Cyanoamino acid metabolismec00460 Map00460
Fatty acid metabolismec00071 Map00071
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolismec00260 Map00260
SMPDB Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Coenzyme A + NADAcetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH
Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphateCarbon dioxide + 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate
Isocitric acid + NADOxoglutaric acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + hydron
Oxoglutaric acid + NAD + Coenzyme ASuccinyl-CoA + NADH + hydron + Carbon dioxide
L-Glutamic acid + hydronCarbon dioxide + 4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate
KEGG Reactions
Pyruvic acid + hydron + 2-Ketobutyric acidCarbon dioxide + (S)-2-acetyl-2-hydroxybutanoate
(2S)-2-Isopropyl-3-oxosuccinate + hydronKetoleucine + Carbon dioxide
NAD + Coenzyme A + 2-Ketobutyric acidNADH + propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide
3-Hexaprenyl-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid + hydronCarbon dioxide + 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxyphenol
Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + hydronCarbon dioxide + isobutyraldehyde
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Sinclair, D. A., Hong, S. P., Dawes, I. W. (1996). "Specific induction by glycine of the gene for the P-subunit of glycine decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Microbiol 19:611-623.8830251
  • Vuralhan, Z., Morais, M. A., Tai, S. L., Piper, M. D., Pronk, J. T. (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534-4541.12902239
  • Mannhaupt, G., Stucka, R., Pilz, U., Schwarzlose, C., Feldmann, H. (1989). "Characterization of the prephenate dehydrogenase-encoding gene, TYR1, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Gene 85:303-311.2697638
  • Pegg, A. E. (1986). "Recent advances in the biochemistry of polyamines in eukaryotes." Biochem J 234:249-262.3087344
  • Kohlwein, S. D., Eder, S., Oh, C. S., Martin, C. E., Gable, K., Bacikova, D., Dunn, T. (2001). "Tsc13p is required for fatty acid elongation and localizes to a novel structure at the nuclear-vacuolar interface in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Cell Biol 21:109-125.11113186
  • Hogan, D. A., Auchtung, T. A., Hausinger, R. P. (1999). "Cloning and characterization of a sulfonate/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 181:5876-5879.10482536
  • Yoo, H. S., Cooper, T. G. (1991). "The ureidoglycollate hydrolase (DAL3) gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 7:693-698.1776360
  • Schneiter, R., Tatzer, V., Gogg, G., Leitner, E., Kohlwein, S. D. (2000). "Elo1p-dependent carboxy-terminal elongation of C14:1Delta(9) to C16:1Delta(11) fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 182:3655-3660.10850979
  • Cullin, C., Baudin-Baillieu, A., Guillemet, E., Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, O. (1996). "Functional analysis of YCL09C: evidence for a role as the regulatory subunit of acetolactate synthase." Yeast 12:1511-1518.8972574
  • Cupp, J. R., McAlister-Henn, L. (1992). "Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the IDH1 subunit of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 267:16417-16423.1644826
  • Zalkin, H., Paluh, J. L., van Cleemput, M., Moye, W. S., Yanofsky, C. (1984). "Nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes TRP2 and TRP3 encoding bifunctional anthranilate synthase: indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase." J Biol Chem 259:3985-3992.6323449
  • Minard, K. I., Jennings, G. T., Loftus, T. M., Xuan, D., McAlister-Henn, L. (1998). "Sources of NADPH and expression of mammalian NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273:31486-31493.9813062
  • Przybyla-Zawislak, B., Gadde, D. M., Ducharme, K., McCammon, M. T. (1999). "Genetic and biochemical interactions involving tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) function using a collection of mutants defective in all TCA cycle genes." Genetics 152:153-166.10224250
  • Kastaniotis, A. J., Autio, K. J., Sormunen, R. T., Hiltunen, J. K. (2004). "Htd2p/Yhr067p is a yeast 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase essential for mitochondrial function and morphology." Mol Microbiol 53:1407-1421.15387819
  • Coleman, S. T., Fang, T. K., Rovinsky, S. A., Turano, F. J., Moye-Rowley, W. S. (2001). "Expression of a glutamate decarboxylase homologue is required for normal oxidative stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 276:244-250.11031268
Synthesis Reference:Callahan, Richard A. Process and apparatus for producing liquid carbon dioxide. U.S. (1993), 11 pp.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16526
HMDB IDHMDB01967
Pubchem Compound ID280
Kegg IDC00011
ChemSpider ID274
FOODB IDFDB030738
WikipediaCarbon Dioxide
BioCyc IDCARBON-DIOXIDE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
TRP3
Uniprot ID:
P00937
Molecular weight:
53488.89844
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine → anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxy-D-ribulose 5-phosphate → 1-C-(3-indolyl)-glycerol 3-phosphate + CO(2) + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and CO(2)
Gene Name:
DUR1
Uniprot ID:
P32528
Molecular weight:
201830.0
Reactions
ATP + urea + HCO(3)(-) → ADP + phosphate + urea-1-carboxylate.
Urea-1-carboxylate + H(2)O → 2 CO(2) + 2 NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase complex) catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein
Gene Name:
GCV2
Uniprot ID:
P49095
Molecular weight:
114450.0
Reactions
Glycine + H-protein-lipoyllysine → H-protein-S-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Succinyl-CoA + glycine = 5-aminolevulinate + CoA + CO(2)
Gene Name:
HEM1
Uniprot ID:
P09950
Molecular weight:
59361.69922
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + glycine → 5-aminolevulinate + CoA + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. This includes the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). Acts also as component of the glycine cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase complex), which catalyzes the degradation of glycine
Gene Name:
LPD1
Uniprot ID:
P09624
Molecular weight:
54009.69922
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD(+) → protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Second most abundant of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
PDC5
Uniprot ID:
P16467
Molecular weight:
61911.60156
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Minor of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins. The expression level of this protein in the presence of fermentable carbon sources is so low that it can not compensate for the other two pyruvate decarboxylases to sustain fermentation
Gene Name:
PDC6
Uniprot ID:
P26263
Molecular weight:
61579.89844
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Major of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-ketoacids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
PDC1
Uniprot ID:
P06169
Molecular weight:
61494.89844
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Orotidine 5'-phosphate = UMP + CO(2)
Gene Name:
URA3
Uniprot ID:
P03962
Molecular weight:
29239.30078
Reactions
Orotidine 5'-phosphate → UMP + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Performs an essential role in the oxidative function of the citric acid cycle. Also binds RNA; specifically to the 5'- untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs
Gene Name:
IDH1
Uniprot ID:
P28834
Molecular weight:
39323.69922
Reactions
Isocitrate + NAD(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Performs an essential role in the oxidative function of the citric acid cycle. Also binds RNA; specifically to the 5'- untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs
Gene Name:
IDH2
Uniprot ID:
P28241
Molecular weight:
39739.0
Reactions
Isocitrate + NAD(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
May function in the production of NADPH for fatty acid and sterol synthesis
Gene Name:
IDP3
Uniprot ID:
P53982
Molecular weight:
47856.0
Reactions
Isocitrate + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
Oxalosuccinate + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Mitochondrial IDP1 may regulate flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiration. Its probably critical function is the production of NADPH
Gene Name:
IDP1
Uniprot ID:
P21954
Molecular weight:
48189.89844
Reactions
Isocitrate + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
Oxalosuccinate + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
May function in the production of NADPH for fatty acid and sterol synthesis
Gene Name:
IDP2
Uniprot ID:
P41939
Molecular weight:
46561.89844
Reactions
Isocitrate + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
Oxalosuccinate + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in ureidoglycolate hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Utilization of purines as secondary nitrogen sources, when primary sources are limiting
Gene Name:
DAL3
Uniprot ID:
P32459
Molecular weight:
21726.59961
Reactions
(S)-ureidoglycolate + H(2)O → glyoxylate + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Involved in cell cycle regulation
Gene Name:
BAT2
Uniprot ID:
P47176
Molecular weight:
41624.39844
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate → 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine → (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine → 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Appears to be involved in the regulation of the transition from G1 to S phase in the cell cycle. High copy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the ABC transporter, ATM1
Gene Name:
BAT1
Uniprot ID:
P38891
Molecular weight:
43595.69922
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate → 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine → (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine → 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
General function:
Involved in fatty acid elongase activity
Specific function:
Involved in synthesis of 1,3-beta-glucan. Could be a subunit of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase. Could be also a component of the membrane bound fatty acid elongation systems that produce the 26-carbon very long chain fatty acids that are precursors for ceramide and sphingolipids. Appears to be involved in the elongation of fatty acids up to 24 carbons. Appears to have the highest affinity for substrates with chain length less than 22 carbons
Gene Name:
FEN1
Uniprot ID:
P25358
Molecular weight:
40001.80078
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA → 3-oxoacyl-CoA + CoA + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Component of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of sphingolipids, the condensation of serine with palmitoyl CoA to form the long chain base 3-ketosphinganine
Gene Name:
LCB1
Uniprot ID:
P25045
Molecular weight:
62206.60156
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + L-serine → CoA + 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in fatty acid elongase activity
Specific function:
May be a membrane bound enzyme involved in the highly specific elongation of saturated 14-carbon fatty acids (14:0) to 16-carbon species (16:0)
Gene Name:
ELO1
Uniprot ID:
P39540
Molecular weight:
36233.60156
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA → 3-oxoacyl-CoA + CoA + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acyl carrier activity
Specific function:
Carrier of the growing fatty acid chain in fatty acid biosynthesis. May be involved in the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids. Accessory and non-catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), which functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain
Gene Name:
ACP1
Uniprot ID:
P32463
Molecular weight:
13942.5
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long- chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The beta subunit contains domains for:[acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase
Gene Name:
FAS1
Uniprot ID:
P07149
Molecular weight:
228689.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADH + 2n NADPH → long-chain-acyl-CoA + n CoA + n CO(2) + 2n NAD(+) + 2n NADP(+).
Acetyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].
Malonyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].
(3R)-3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] → hexadec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H(2)O.
Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NAD(+) → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADH.
Oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H(2)O → [acyl-carrier-protein] + oleate.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long- chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The alpha subunit contains domains for:acyl carrier protein, 3- oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[acyl- carrier-protein] synthase. This subunit coordinates the binding of the six beta subunits to the enzyme complex
Gene Name:
FAS2
Uniprot ID:
P19097
Molecular weight:
206945.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADH + 2n NADPH → long-chain-acyl-CoA + n CoA + n CO(2) + 2n NAD(+) + 2n NADP(+).
Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] → 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) + [acyl-carrier-protein].
(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP(+) → 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of sphingolipids, the condensation of serine with palmitoyl CoA to form the long chain base 3-ketosphinganine
Gene Name:
LCB2
Uniprot ID:
P40970
Molecular weight:
63110.19922
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + L-serine → CoA + 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2)
Gene Name:
PDA2
Uniprot ID:
P12695
Molecular weight:
51817.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine → CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine.
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P40506
Molecular weight:
41892.69922
Reactions
CTP + (R)-4'-phosphopantothenate + L-cysteine → CMP + PPi + N-((R)-4'-phosphopantothenoyl)-L-cysteine.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol
Gene Name:
GLR1
Uniprot ID:
P41921
Molecular weight:
53440.60156
Reactions
2 glutathione + NADP(+) → glutathione disulfide + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase activity
Specific function:
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4- carboxylate = 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole + CO(2)
Gene Name:
ADE2
Uniprot ID:
P21264
Molecular weight:
62338.69922
Reactions
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate → 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
ATP + 7,8-diaminononanoate + CO(2) = ADP + phosphate + dethiobiotin
Gene Name:
BIO4
Uniprot ID:
P53630
Molecular weight:
26256.69922
Reactions
ATP + 7,8-diaminononanoate + CO(2) → ADP + phosphate + dethiobiotin.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in the catabolism of quinolinic acid (QA)
Gene Name:
BNA6
Uniprot ID:
P43619
Molecular weight:
32364.69922
Reactions
Nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + diphosphate + CO(2) → pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of propionic acid side chains of rings A and B of coproporphyrinogen III
Gene Name:
HEM13
Uniprot ID:
P11353
Molecular weight:
37711.30078
Reactions
Coproporphyrinogen-III + O(2) + 2 H(+) → protoporphyrinogen-IX + 2 CO(2) + 2 H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of four acetate groups of uroporphyrinogen-III to yield coproporphyrinogen-III
Gene Name:
HEM12
Uniprot ID:
P32347
Molecular weight:
41348.69922
Reactions
Uroporphyrinogen III → coproporphyrinogen + 4 CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (FAS) type II pathway. Responsible for the production of the mitochondrial malonyl-CoA, used for the biosynthesis of the cofactor lipoic acid. This protein carries three functions:biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase, and carboxyltransferase
Gene Name:
HFA1
Uniprot ID:
P32874
Molecular weight:
259161.0
Reactions
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) → ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
ATP + biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) → ADP + phosphate + carboxy-biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein].
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + (R)-5-diphosphomevalonate = ADP + phosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate + CO(2)
Gene Name:
MVD1
Uniprot ID:
P32377
Molecular weight:
44115.5
Reactions
ATP + (R)-5-diphosphomevalonate → ADP + phosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Carries out three functions:biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase
Gene Name:
FAS3
Uniprot ID:
Q00955
Molecular weight:
250351.0
Reactions
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) → ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
ATP + biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) → ADP + phosphate + carboxy-biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein].
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) activity
Specific function:
ATP + oxaloacetate = ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate + CO(2)
Gene Name:
PCK1
Uniprot ID:
P10963
Molecular weight:
60982.69922
Reactions
ATP + oxaloacetate → ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
(S)-malate + NAD(+) = pyruvate + CO(2) + NADH
Gene Name:
MAE1
Uniprot ID:
P36013
Molecular weight:
74375.29688
Reactions
(S)-malate + NAD(+) → pyruvate + CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Formate + NAD(+) = CO(2) + NADH
Gene Name:
FDH1
Uniprot ID:
Q08911
Molecular weight:
41714.0
Reactions
Formate + NAD(+) → CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Formate + NAD(+) = CO(2) + NADH
Gene Name:
FDH2
Uniprot ID:
P0CF35
Molecular weight:
26487.19922
Reactions
Formate + NAD(+) → CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to alpha-ketoadipate
Gene Name:
LYS12
Uniprot ID:
P40495
Molecular weight:
40068.60156
Reactions
(1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + NAD(+) → 2-oxoadipate + CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4- methylpentanoate (3-isopropylmalate) to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2- oxopentanoate. The product decarboxylates to 4-methyl-2 oxopentanoate
Gene Name:
LEU2
Uniprot ID:
P04173
Molecular weight:
38952.5
Reactions
(2R,3S)-3-isopropylmalate + NAD(+) → 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Acts as a alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase active on sulfonates. Although taurine is a poor substrate, a variety of other sulfonates are utilized, with the best natural substrates being isethionate and taurocholate
Gene Name:
JLP1
Uniprot ID:
Q12358
Molecular weight:
46982.30078
Reactions
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
One of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) involved in amino acid catabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids). In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids, phenylalanine, tryptophan, (and probably tyrosine), but also isoleucine, whereas leucine is a low efficiency and valine and pyruvate are no substrates. In analogy to the pyruvate decarboxylases the enzyme may in a side-reaction catalyze condensation (or carboligation) reactions leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
ARO10
Uniprot ID:
Q06408
Molecular weight:
71383.79688
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is essential for normal growth, sporulation, maintenance of ds-RNA virus, biosynthesis of spermine and spermidine
Gene Name:
SPE2
Uniprot ID:
P21182
Molecular weight:
46232.0
Reactions
S-adenosyl-L-methionine → (5-deoxy-5-adenosyl)(3-aminopropyl)-methylsulfonium salt + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
L-ornithine = putrescine + CO(2)
Gene Name:
SPE1
Uniprot ID:
P08432
Molecular weight:
52284.80078
Reactions
L-ornithine → putrescine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest- 7-ene-4-alpha-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) = 4-alpha-methyl-5-alpha- cholest-7-en-3-one + CO(2) + NAD(P)H
Gene Name:
ERG26
Uniprot ID:
P53199
Molecular weight:
38706.10156
Reactions
3-beta-hydroxy-4-beta-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-ene-4-alpha-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) → 4-alpha-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3-one + CO(2) + NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Prephenate + NADP(+) = 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + CO(2) + NADPH
Gene Name:
TYR1
Uniprot ID:
P20049
Molecular weight:
50922.89844
Reactions
Prephenate + NADP(+) → 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
Specific function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:2- oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
KGD1
Uniprot ID:
P20967
Molecular weight:
114416.0
Reactions
2-oxoglutarate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] S-succinyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2)
Gene Name:
PDA1
Uniprot ID:
P16387
Molecular weight:
46342.69922
Reactions
Pyruvate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2)
Gene Name:
PDB1
Uniprot ID:
P32473
Molecular weight:
40053.19922
Reactions
Pyruvate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
2 pyruvate = 2-acetolactate + CO(2)
Gene Name:
ILV2
Uniprot ID:
P07342
Molecular weight:
74936.29688
Reactions
2 pyruvate → 2-acetolactate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6- phosphogluconate to ribulose 5-phosphate and CO(2), with concomitant reduction of NADP to NADPH
Gene Name:
GND1
Uniprot ID:
P38720
Molecular weight:
53542.69922
Reactions
6-phospho-D-gluconate + NADP(+) → D-ribulose 5-phosphate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6- phosphogluconate to ribulose 5-phosphate and CO(2), with concomitant reduction of NADP to NADPH
Gene Name:
GND2
Uniprot ID:
P53319
Molecular weight:
53922.30078
Reactions
6-phospho-D-gluconate + NADP(+) → D-ribulose 5-phosphate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2)
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q04792
Molecular weight:
65989.5
Reactions
L-glutamate → 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
One of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) involved in amino acid catabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids). In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids leucine and isoleucine, whereas valine, aromatic amino acids, and pyruvate are no substrates. In analogy to the pyruvate decarboxylases the enzyme may in a side-reaction catalyze condensation (or carboligation) reactions leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins. The enzyme is also positively regulating the thiamine metabolism by a molecular mechanism that may involve thiamine concentration sensing and signal transmission
Gene Name:
THI3
Uniprot ID:
Q07471
Molecular weight:
68365.79688
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO(2) to H(2)CO(3). The main role may be to provide inorganic carbon for the bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation reactions catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and carbamoyl- phosphate synthetase. Involved in protection against oxidative damage. Encodes a substrate for the non-classical protein export pathway for proteins that lack a cleavable signal sequence
Gene Name:
NCE103
Uniprot ID:
P53615
Molecular weight:
24859.0
Reactions
H(2)CO(3) → CO(2) + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
May be involved in the regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis and interorganelle trafficking of phosphatidylserine
Gene Name:
PSD1
Uniprot ID:
P39006
Molecular weight:
56594.39844
Reactions
Phosphatidyl-L-serine → phosphatidylethanolamine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Possibly involved in the synthesis of a specialized molecule, probably related to a fatty acid, which is essential for mitochondrial respiration. Is essential for oxygen uptake and the presence of cytochromes A and B
Gene Name:
CEM1
Uniprot ID:
P39525
Molecular weight:
47554.69922
Reactions
Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] → 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) + [acyl-carrier-protein].
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
May be involved in the regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis and interorganelle trafficking of phosphatidylserine
Gene Name:
PSD2
Uniprot ID:
P53037
Molecular weight:
130064.0
Reactions
Phosphatidyl-L-serine → phosphatidylethanolamine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in prephenate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Prephenate = phenylpyruvate + H(2)O + CO(2)
Gene Name:
PHA2
Uniprot ID:
P32452
Molecular weight:
38224.80078
Reactions
Prephenate → phenylpyruvate + H(2)O + CO(2).
General function:
ferulate metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids like ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid or cinnamic acid, producing the corresponding vinyl derivatives 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylguaiacol, and styrene, respectively, which play the role of aroma metabolites (PubMed:20471595, PubMed:25647642). Not essential for ubiquinone synthesis (PubMed:20471595).
Gene Name:
FDC1
Uniprot ID:
Q03034
Molecular weight:
56163.39
Reactions