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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00896
NameL-Aspartic acid
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionAspartate (abbreviated as Asp or D) is an alpha-amino acid. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. It is classified as a polar, acidic (pKa = 4.0) amino acid with a side chain carboxylic acid. Aspartate is the precursor to several amino acids, including methionine, threonine, isoleucine, and lysine. The conversion of aspartate to these other amino acids begins with reduction of aspartate to its 'semialdehyde'. Asparagine is derived from aspartate via transamidation. Aspartate is also a metabolite in the urea cycle and participates in gluconeogenesis. It carries reducing equivalents in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which utilizes the ready interconversion of aspartate and oxaloacetate, which is the oxidized (dehydrogenated) derivative of malic acid. Aspartate donates one nitrogen atom in the biosynthesis of inosine, the precursor to the purine bases.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-Aspartate
  • (+)-Aspartic acid
  • (2S)-2-ammoniobutanedioate
  • (2S)-2-ammoniosuccinate
  • (2S)-Aspartate
  • (2S)-Aspartic acid
  • (L)-Aspartate
  • (L)-Aspartic acid
  • (R)-2-aminosuccinate
  • (S)-(+)-Aspartate
  • (S)-(+)-Aspartic acid
  • (S)-2-aminosuccinate
  • (S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
  • (S)-amino-Butanedioate
  • (S)-amino-Butanedioic acid
  • (S)-Aminobutanedioate
  • (S)-Aminobutanedioic acid
  • (S)-Aspartate
  • (S)-Aspartic acid
  • 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinate
  • 2-Amino-3-methylsuccinic acid
  • 2-Aminosuccinate
  • 2-Aminosuccinic acid
  • Acidum asparticum
  • alpha-Aminosuccinate
  • alpha-Aminosuccinic acid
  • Aminosuccinate
  • Aminosuccinic acid
  • Asp
  • Asparagate
  • Asparagic acid
  • Asparaginate
  • Asparaginic acid
  • Asparatate
  • Aspartate
  • Aspartic acid
  • Aspartic acid, L-
  • Aspatofort
  • Butanedioic acid, amino-, (S)-
  • H-Asp-OH
  • L-(+ )-Aspartic acid
  • L-(+)-Aspartate
  • L-(+)-Aspartic acid
  • L-2-Aminobutanedioic acid
  • L-Aminosuccinate
  • L-Aminosuccinic acid
  • L-Asp
  • L-Asparagate
  • L-Asparagic acid
  • L-Asparaginate
  • L-Asparaginic acid
  • L-Asparaginsaeure
  • L-Asparaginsyra
  • L-Aspartate
  • L-aspartate(1-)
  • L-Aspartic acid
  • L-aspartic acid monoanion
  • L-Aspartinsaeure
  • (S)-2-Aminobutanedioic acid
  • D
  • (S)-2-Aminobutanedioate
  • (+-)-Aspartic acid
  • (R,S)-Aspartic acid
  • Aspartate, disodium
  • Aspartate, magnesium
  • Aspartate, monopotassium
  • Aspartic acid, dipotassium salt
  • Aspartic acid, hydrobromide
  • Aspartic acid, monopotassium salt
  • Aspartic acid, monosodium salt
  • Aspartic acid, potassium salt
  • L Aspartate
  • MG5Longoral
  • Potassium aspartate
  • Polysuccinimide
  • Ammonium aspartate
  • Aspartate, ammonium
  • Aspartate, calcium
  • Aspartate, monosodium
  • Aspartic acid, calcium salt
  • Aspartic acid, disodium salt
  • Aspartic acid, magnesium (1:1) salt, hydrochloride, trihydrate
  • Dipotassium aspartate
  • Disodium aspartate
  • Hydrochloride, aspartate magnesium
  • Monopotassium aspartate
  • Sodium aspartate
  • Aspartate, dipotassium
  • Aspartic acid, magnesium (2:1) salt
  • Aspartic acid, sodium salt
  • Hydrobromide aspartic acid
  • Magnesium aspartate
  • MG 5 Longoral
  • Monosodium aspartate
  • Aspartate magnesium hydrochloride
  • Aspartate, potassium
  • Aspartate, sodium
  • Aspartic acid, ammonium salt
  • Aspartic acid, hydrochloride
  • Aspartic acid, magnesium-potassium (2:1:2) salt
  • Calcium aspartate
  • Hydrochloride aspartic acid
  • L Aspartic acid
  • Magnesiocard
  • MG-5-Longoral
  • Poly-DL-succinimide
CAS number56-84-8
WeightAverage: 133.1027
Monoisotopic: 133.037507717
InChI KeyCKLJMWTZIZZHCS-REOHCLBHSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C4H7NO4/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h2H,1,5H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t2-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-aspartic acid
Chemical FormulaC4H7NO4
SMILESN[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aspartic acid and derivatives. Aspartic acid and derivatives are compounds containing an aspartic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of aspartic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAspartic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aspartic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point270 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility5.36 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)]PhysProp
LogP-3.89 [CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility142 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS0.03ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.53 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.28 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • extracellular
  • mitochondrion
  • peroxisome
  • vacuole
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
OdorlessFDB030958
SMPDB Pathways
Asparagine metabolismPW002274 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Aspartate metabolismPW002375 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Cysteine MetabolismPW002383 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Methionine metabolism and salvagePW002384 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Nitrogen metabolismPW002504 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolismec00250 Map00250
Arginine and proline metabolismec00330 Map00330
Cyanoamino acid metabolismec00460 Map00460
Cysteine and methionine metabolismec00270 Map00270
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolismec00260 Map00260
SMPDB Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + hydron Carbon dioxide + Beta-Alanine
Carbamoylphosphate + L-Aspartic acidphosphate + hydron + N-Carbamoyl-L-aspartate
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphateSAICAR + phosphate + ADP + hydron
KEGG Reactions
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphateSAICAR + phosphate + hydron + ADP
Concentrations
Intracellular Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationSubstrateGrowth ConditionsStrainCitation
2096 ± 42 µM YPD mediaaerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
2096 ± 42 µM YPG mediaaerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
621 ± 12 µM SD mediaaerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
1164 ± 23 µM SG mediaaerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
539 ± 11 µM M (molasses)aerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
2466 ± 49 µM MA (molasses)aerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
694 ± 14 µM MB (molasses)aerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
3313 ± 66 µM MAB (molasses)aerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 7654310
1034 ± 52 µM YEB media with 0.5 mM glucoseaerobicBaker's yeastExperimentally Determined
Not Available
8120 ± 2006 µM Synthetic medium with 20 g/L glucoseaerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 12584756
8000 ± 5000 µM Minimal medium supplemented with glucoseaerobic;resting cellsBaker's yeastPMID: 4578278
8000 ± 5000 µM Minimal medium supplemented with ammonium and glucoseaerobic;growing cellsBaker's yeastPMID: 4578278
Conversion Details Here
Extracellular Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationSubstrateGrowth ConditionsStrainCitation
1202 ± 0 µM hops, malted barleyanaerobicBaker's yeastAlcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
Conversion Details Here
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0960000000-5a6a6cb21e9fc0875f84JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0950000000-51399a8446c394459765JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0950000000-f07e7f52b3c31fd119f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0950000000-9e175dfa17a8b17a72d2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-0950000000-f4475587d5a3b20bfc58JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9430000000-0cac9a97e698db1672b5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-03yi-1900000000-ea61b8526ee02ae79b66JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-1890000000-7da576c8129142b71a1bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0pb9-0981000000-ad23d55e348f55115f00JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-0590000000-13cc5a7841854e97f68bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-0960000000-5a6a6cb21e9fc0875f84JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-0950000000-51399a8446c394459765JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-0950000000-f07e7f52b3c31fd119f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-0950000000-9e175dfa17a8b17a72d2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-0950000000-f4475587d5a3b20bfc58JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0g4i-6946100000-0ae49e3be0f2f1f92065JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9430000000-0cac9a97e698db1672b5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-03yi-1900000000-ea61b8526ee02ae79b66JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-1890000000-7da576c8129142b71a1bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0pb9-0981000000-ad23d55e348f55115f00JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000f-9100000000-b7db3377089f4c95001bJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01w4-9610000000-0f1463c6395830708e12JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0079-9300000000-92f9914d94078d96f5cfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-c467d10f2b7e21ed1734JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9000000000-87f0c58226f5a2f3ac8aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-fde7ef1951fddff4b817JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uk9-8900000000-2d7e5609618437e59272JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-4b43567f4a446aed0828JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-4900000000-45382d9abd25be948e5bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-3f39a9b758e282358ac0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-44d361ad09ff9a30dd14JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-18e1dba62e6b803e17b8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0930000000-d97f9518a2d516d830c5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-02ai-0962100000-909bb894b2c1318afee4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f2059dd438fcf62f62e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dr-7900000000-8b7b89ed34530e331024JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-0190000000-58a78949f4b93de22aabJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0921000000-214b6b969fdc4216ca71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dr-6900000000-4918748927dd097d2879JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-88dc2f1093f261e76201JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0290000000-a8856f56645a2961baacJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-8cf9870557ca9adc3374JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9400000000-81b2804a712625a2d9c4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9bf77ba12ad952f84ac0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-e08bfb96c5fd8c9b9db7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-876e30f6c9ed061091feJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-6c0d44d4e3853e5701a3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • Martinez-Force, E., Benitez, T. (1995). "Effects of varying media, temperature, and growth rates on the intracellular concentrations of yeast amino acids." Biotechnol Prog 11:386-392.7654310
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Arevalo-Rodriguez, M., Calderon, I. L., Holmberg, S. (1999). "Mutations that cause threonine sensitivity identify catalytic and regulatory regions of the aspartate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 15:1331-1345.10509015
  • Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
  • Cavero, S., Vozza, A., del Arco, A., Palmieri, L., Villa, A., Blanco, E., Runswick, M. J., Walker, J. E., Cerdan, S., Palmieri, F., Satrustegui, J. (2003). "Identification and metabolic role of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Microbiol 50:1257-1269.14622413
  • Verleur, N., Elgersma, Y., Van Roermund, C. W., Tabak, H. F., Wanders, R. J. (1997). "Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase encoded by the AAT2 gene is targeted to the peroxisomes in oleate-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 247:972-980.9288922
  • Nookaew, I., Jewett, M. C., Meechai, A., Thammarongtham, C., Laoteng, K., Cheevadhanarak, S., Nielsen, J., Bhumiratana, S. (2008). "The genome-scale metabolic model iIN800 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its validation: a scaffold to query lipid metabolism." BMC Syst Biol 2:71.18687109
  • Gancedo, J. M., Gancedo, C. (1973). "Concentrations of intermediary metabolites in yeast." Biochimie 55:205-211.4578278
  • Castrillo, J. I., Zeef, L. A., Hoyle, D. C., Zhang, N., Hayes, A., Gardner, D. C., Cornell, M. J., Petty, J., Hakes, L., Wardleworth, L., Rash, B., Brown, M., Dunn, W. B., Broadhurst, D., O'Donoghue, K., Hester, S. S., Dunkley, T. P., Hart, S. R., Swainston, N., Li, P., Gaskell, S. J., Paton, N. W., Lilley, K. S., Kell, D. B., Oliver, S. G. (2007). "Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast." J Biol 6:4.17439666
Synthesis Reference:Pamfil, Maria; Lupescu, Irina; Savoiu, Valeria Gabriela. L-aspartic acid production from fumarate using Escherichia coli whole cells. Rom. (2005), 3pp.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17053
HMDB IDHMDB00191
Pubchem Compound ID5960
Kegg IDC00049
ChemSpider ID5745
FOODB IDFDB030958
WikipediaAspartic_acid
BioCyc IDL-ASPARTATE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxyl- or carbamoyltransferase activity
Specific function:
This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding three enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, and ATCase)
Gene Name:
URA2
Uniprot ID:
P07259
Molecular weight:
245124.0
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O → 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
Carbamoyl phosphate + L-aspartate → phosphate + N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN1
Uniprot ID:
P49089
Molecular weight:
64469.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN2
Uniprot ID:
P49090
Molecular weight:
64592.5
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in adenylosuccinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the de novo pathway and in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Catalyzes the first commited step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP
Gene Name:
ADE12
Uniprot ID:
P80210
Molecular weight:
48279.10156
Reactions
GTP + IMP + L-aspartate → GDP + phosphate + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-AMP.
General function:
Involved in argininosuccinate synthase activity
Specific function:
In yeast, as can have a catabolic function since it allows efficient utilization of citrulline via arginine and the reactions involved in the arginase pathway
Gene Name:
ARG1
Uniprot ID:
P22768
Molecular weight:
46939.30078
Reactions
ATP + L-citrulline + L-aspartate → AMP + diphosphate + N(omega)-(L-arginino)succinate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D- ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-aspartate = ADP + phosphate + (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4- carboxamido)succinate
Gene Name:
ADE1
Uniprot ID:
P27616
Molecular weight:
34603.10156
Reactions
ATP + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-aspartate → ADP + phosphate + (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Could be a fumarate reductase
Gene Name:
OSM1
Uniprot ID:
P21375
Molecular weight:
55064.80078
Reactions
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ASP3-1
Uniprot ID:
P11163
Molecular weight:
38686.19922
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O → L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ASP1
Uniprot ID:
P38986
Molecular weight:
41394.80078
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O → L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + tRNA(Asp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp)
Gene Name:
MSD1
Uniprot ID:
P15179
Molecular weight:
75460.0
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + tRNA(Asp) → AMP + diphosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp).
General function:
Involved in fumarate hydratase activity
Specific function:
(S)-malate = fumarate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
FUM1
Uniprot ID:
P08417
Molecular weight:
53151.5
Reactions
(S)-malate → fumarate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in amino acid binding
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate = ADP + 4-phospho-L- aspartate
Gene Name:
HOM3
Uniprot ID:
P10869
Molecular weight:
58109.19922
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate → ADP + 4-phospho-L-aspartate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol
Gene Name:
AAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q01802
Molecular weight:
51795.10156
Reactions
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate → oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism
Gene Name:
AAT2
Uniprot ID:
P23542
Molecular weight:
46057.30078
Reactions
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate → oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2)
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q04792
Molecular weight:
65989.5
Reactions
L-glutamate → 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + tRNA(Asp) = AMP + diphosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp)
Gene Name:
DPS1
Uniprot ID:
P04802
Molecular weight:
63514.89844
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + tRNA(Asp) → AMP + diphosphate + L-aspartyl-tRNA(Asp).

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Permease for various amino acids as well as for GABA. Can also transport L-cysteine and beta-alanine
Gene Name:
GAP1
Uniprot ID:
P19145
Molecular weight:
65654.89844
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Can transport glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, asparagine, serine, alanine and glycine
Gene Name:
DIP5
Uniprot ID:
P53388
Molecular weight:
68096.70313
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
General amino acid permease with broad substrate specificity
Gene Name:
AGP3
Uniprot ID:
P43548
Molecular weight:
61051.19922
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent mitochondrial aspartate and glutamate carrier. Transport of glutamate in mitochondria is required for mitochondrial transamination reactions and ornithine synthesis. Plays also a role in malate-aspartate NADH shuttle, which is critical for growth on acetate and fatty acids
Gene Name:
AGC1
Uniprot ID:
Q12482
Molecular weight:
104303.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in amino acid efflux from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. Capable of transporting aspartate and glutamate. Requires ATP for function
Gene Name:
AVT6
Uniprot ID:
P40074
Molecular weight:
48839.69922