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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00887
NameAdenine
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionAdenine, also known as 6-aminopurine or Ade, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. Adenine is a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Adenine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Adenine is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurine
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine
  • 1H-Purine-6-amine
  • 3,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurine
  • 6-Amino-1H-purine
  • 6-Amino-3H-purine
  • 6-Amino-7H-purine
  • 6-Amino-9H-purine
  • 6-amino-Purine
  • 6-Aminopurine
  • 9H-Purin-6-amine
  • 9H-Purin-6-yl-amin
  • 9H-purin-6-ylamine
  • 9H-Purine-6-amine
  • Ade
  • Adenine
  • Adeninimine
  • Vitamin B4
  • A
  • Adenin
  • Leucon
  • Vitamin b 4
  • 4, Vitamin b
  • b 4, Vitamin
CAS number73-24-5
WeightAverage: 135.1267
Monoisotopic: 135.054495185
InChI KeyGFFGJBXGBJISGV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C5H5N5/c6-4-3-5(9-1-7-3)10-2-8-4/h1-2H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10)
IUPAC Name7H-purin-6-amine
Traditional IUPAC Namevitamin B4
Chemical FormulaC5H5N5
SMILES[H]N([H])C1=NC([H])=NC2=C1N([H])C([H])=N2
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent6-aminopurines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point360 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility1.03 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP-0.09 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.38ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.22 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • extracellular
  • mitochondrion
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
OdorlessFDB012266
SMPDB Pathways
Methionine metabolism and salvagePW002384 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesisPW002463 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesisec00770 Map00770
Purine metabolismec00230 Map00230
SMPDB Reactions
phosphate + 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine5-Methylthioribose 1-phosphate + Adenine
Adenosine triphosphate + hydron + Dephospho-CoAAdenine + 2'-(5-Triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA
KEGG Reactions
phosphate + 5'-MethylthioadenosineS-Methyl-5-thio-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate + Adenine
water + hydron + AdenineHypoxanthine + Ammonium
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + AdenineAdenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine + waterD-Ribose + Adenine
Adenosine + phosphateRibose 1-phosphate + Adenine
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-03di-3490000000-7efe9518c90307a43707JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2690000000-6dc072eb8483a2c38e18JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9350000000-220125189c286547e86cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-03di-4690000000-2d327a6944df53411886JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0006-3920000000-f488e8aa64272a07b3d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-000i-0329000000-0b012fa483ce8764d2afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-3490000000-7efe9518c90307a43707JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2690000000-6dc072eb8483a2c38e18JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9350000000-220125189c286547e86cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-4690000000-2d327a6944df53411886JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-3920000000-f488e8aa64272a07b3d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-0329000000-0b012fa483ce8764d2afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-2690000000-534edabc8ab24e32f3f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9700000000-e85c2b0bb19cf3401e5aJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-95d4894082ada0b24773JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-5900000000-66b1c086d7a666b2d02bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9200000000-4202a1aec437f3fd1275JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c1766360e5f779d277abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-68585e8dac03a15d5210JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-3db475b164c0f884b93dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-2900000000-7e2deed118def434e8dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b24b09629456779d96e6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-b2cc6b5ce2fe2affe47dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-f45a65a00be3c0c36350JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-80808f34c7497219d349JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a5c-6900000000-f6c0abd6d3fca61bd7f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b24b09629456779d96e6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-80808f34c7497219d349JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a5c-6900000000-f6c0abd6d3fca61bd7f7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-cbe0a995dab473351f43JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-bfc42d662f222a7c16c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-3db475b164c0f884b93dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-2900000000-7e2deed118def434e8dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-f2335984e7dd7e129a8cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-ee084d257bf2325fb370JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-067i-9700000000-5a42850e3f5331952458JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-05fa9674ab4d9e5e174eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-dc404aa4196bbf0ae9cdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05o0-8900000000-b56d110371cd80ac76e0JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000i-6900000000-39944576233751576a91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • ROUSH, A. H., SAEED, M. (1960). "Adenine metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenase from bakers' yeast." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2:43-47.14439573
  • Aranda, A., Jimenez-Marti, E., Orozco, H., Matallana, E., Del Olmo, M. (2006). "Sulfur and adenine metabolisms are linked, and both modulate sulfite resistance in wine yeast." J Agric Food Chem 54:5839-5846.16881685
  • Subhi, A. L., Diegelman, P., Porter, C. W., Tang, B., Lu, Z. J., Markham, G. D., Kruger, W. D. (2003). "Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase regulates ornithine decarboxylase by production of downstream metabolites." J Biol Chem 278:49868-49873.14506228
  • Castrillo, J. I., Zeef, L. A., Hoyle, D. C., Zhang, N., Hayes, A., Gardner, D. C., Cornell, M. J., Petty, J., Hakes, L., Wardleworth, L., Rash, B., Brown, M., Dunn, W. B., Broadhurst, D., O'Donoghue, K., Hester, S. S., Dunkley, T. P., Hart, S. R., Swainston, N., Li, P., Gaskell, S. J., Paton, N. W., Lilley, K. S., Kell, D. B., Oliver, S. G. (2007). "Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast." J Biol 6:4.17439666
Synthesis Reference:Baddiley, J.; Lythgoe, B.; Todd, A. R. Synthesis of purine nucleosides. II. A new and convenient synthesis of adenine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1943), 386-7.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16708
HMDB IDHMDB00034
Pubchem Compound ID190
Kegg IDC00147
ChemSpider ID185
FOODB IDFDB012266
WikipediaAdenine
BioCyc IDADENINE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Cleavage of guanosine or inosine to respective bases and sugar-1-phosphate molecules
Gene Name:
PNP1
Uniprot ID:
Q05788
Molecular weight:
33754.60156
Reactions
Purine nucleoside + phosphate → purine + alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Thiamine-regulated, high affinity import carrier of pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine
Gene Name:
TPN1
Uniprot ID:
P53099
Molecular weight:
64545.80078
General function:
Involved in deaminase activity
Specific function:
Adenosine + H(2)O = inosine + NH(3)
Gene Name:
AAH1
Uniprot ID:
P53909
Molecular weight:
39634.69922
Reactions
Adenosine + H(2)O → inosine + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis
Gene Name:
APT1
Uniprot ID:
P49435
Molecular weight:
20586.59961
Reactions
AMP + diphosphate → adenine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis. May lack catalytic activity
Gene Name:
APT2
Uniprot ID:
P36973
Molecular weight:
19999.80078
Reactions
AMP + diphosphate → adenine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Seems to be implicated in the regulation of the expression of the ADH2 gene
Gene Name:
MEU1
Uniprot ID:
Q07938
Molecular weight:
37856.30078
Reactions
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + phosphate → adenine + S-methyl-5-thio-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing N-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Also acts on cytidine
Gene Name:
URH1
Uniprot ID:
Q04179
Molecular weight:
37960.0
Reactions
Uridine + H(2)O → D-ribose + uracil.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable purine-cytosine permease
Gene Name:
FCY21
Uniprot ID:
P40039
Molecular weight:
58049.60156
General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
This permease has a broad specificity towards purines, and also transport cytosine and 5-methylcytosine but neither uracil nor thymine
Gene Name:
FCY2
Uniprot ID:
P17064
Molecular weight:
58200.69922
General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable purine-cytosine permease
Gene Name:
FCY22
Uniprot ID:
Q12119
Molecular weight:
57326.69922