Canmetcon
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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00786
Nameketo-phenylpyruvic acid
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
Descriptionketo-Phenylpyruvic acid is an intermediate in the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway. [Biocyc PHESYN] It has a slight honey-like odor.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropenoic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-phenylpropanoate
  • 2-Oxo-3-phenylpropanoic acid
  • 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate
  • 3-phenyl-2-oxopropanoate
  • 3-Phenyl-2-oxopropanoic acid
  • 3-Phenylpyruvate
  • 3-Phenylpyruvic acid
  • alpha-Ketohydrocinnamate
  • alpha-ketohydrocinnamic acid
  • alpha-oxo-benzenepropanoic acid
  • b-Phenylpyruvate
  • b-Phenylpyruvic acid
  • Benzenepropanoic acid, .alpha.-oxo-
  • beta-Phenylpyruvate
  • beta-Phenylpyruvic acid
  • keto-phenylpyruvate
  • Phenylbrenztraubensaeure
  • Phenylpyroracemate
  • Phenylpyroracemic acid
  • Phenylpyruvate
  • phenylpyruvic acid
  • Pyruvic acid, phenyl-
  • a-Ketohydrocinnamate
  • a-Ketohydrocinnamic acid
  • Α-ketohydrocinnamate
  • Α-ketohydrocinnamic acid
  • a-oxo-Benzenepropanoate
  • a-oxo-Benzenepropanoic acid
  • alpha-oxo-Benzenepropanoate
  • Α-oxo-benzenepropanoate
  • Α-oxo-benzenepropanoic acid
  • Β-phenylpyruvate
  • Β-phenylpyruvic acid
  • Keto-phenylpyruvic acid
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid, 9ci
  • 2-oxo-3-Phenylpropanoic acid (mixture oxo and keto)
  • a-Hydroxycinnamic acid
  • a-Oxobenzenepropanoic acid, 9ci
  • FEMA 3892
  • Phenylpyruvic acid, calcium salt
  • Phenylpyruvic acid, sodium salt
CAS number156-06-9
WeightAverage: 164.158
Monoisotopic: 164.047344122
InChI KeyBTNMPGBKDVTSJY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C9H8O3/c10-8(9(11)12)6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5H,6H2,(H,11,12)
IUPAC Name2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Namephenylpyruvic acid
Chemical FormulaC9H8O3
SMILESOC(=O)C(=O)CC1=CC=CC=C1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpyruvic acid derivatives. Phenylpyruvic acid derivatives are compounds containing a phenylpyruvic acid moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an pyruvic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylpyruvic acid derivatives
Direct ParentPhenylpyruvic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpyruvate
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Keto acid
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point154 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water SolubilityNot AvailablePhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.93 g/LALOGPS
logP1.3ALOGPS
logP1.9ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity42.71 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.75 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Phenylalanine metabolismPW002437 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Tryptophan metabolismPW002442 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Phenylalanine metabolismec00360 Map00360
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesisec00400 Map00400
Tryptophan metabolismec00380 Map00380
SMPDB Reactions
keto-phenylpyruvic acid + L-AlaninePyruvic acid + L-Phenylalanine
L-Tryptophan + keto-phenylpyruvic acid3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate + L-Phenylalanine
Prephenate + hydronwater + Carbon dioxide + keto-phenylpyruvic acid
keto-phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acidL-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid
keto-phenylpyruvic acid + hydronCarbon dioxide + Phenylacetaldehyde
KEGG Reactions
Oxoglutaric acid + L-PhenylalanineL-Glutamic acid + keto-phenylpyruvic acid
hydron + keto-phenylpyruvic acidPhenylacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide
hydron + PrephenateCarbon dioxide + water + keto-phenylpyruvic acid
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Vuralhan, Z., Morais, M. A., Tai, S. L., Piper, M. D., Pronk, J. T. (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534-4541.12902239
  • Iraqui, I., Vissers, S., Cartiaux, M., Urrestarazu, A. (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257:238-248.9491083
  • Boer, V. M., Crutchfield, C. A., Bradley, P. H., Botstein, D., Rabinowitz, J. D. (2010). "Growth-limiting intracellular metabolites in yeast growing under diverse nutrient limitations." Mol Biol Cell 21:198-211.19889834
Synthesis Reference:Li, Hongbin; Luo, Yuzhong. Preparation of phenyl-pyruvic acid by dicarbonylation of benzyl halide. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (1996), 5 pp.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID30851
HMDB IDHMDB00205
Pubchem Compound ID997
Kegg IDC00166
ChemSpider ID972
FOODB IDFDB008272
Wikipediaphenylpyruvate
BioCyc IDPHENYL-PYRUVATE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Second most abundant of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
PDC5
Uniprot ID:
P16467
Molecular weight:
61911.60156
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Minor of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins. The expression level of this protein in the presence of fermentable carbon sources is so low that it can not compensate for the other two pyruvate decarboxylases to sustain fermentation
Gene Name:
PDC6
Uniprot ID:
P26263
Molecular weight:
61579.89844
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Major of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-ketoacids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
PDC1
Uniprot ID:
P06169
Molecular weight:
61494.89844
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
One of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) involved in amino acid catabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids). In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids, phenylalanine, tryptophan, (and probably tyrosine), but also isoleucine, whereas leucine is a low efficiency and valine and pyruvate are no substrates. In analogy to the pyruvate decarboxylases the enzyme may in a side-reaction catalyze condensation (or carboligation) reactions leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
ARO10
Uniprot ID:
Q06408
Molecular weight:
71383.79688
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Has aromatic amino acid transaminase activity and kynurenine aminotransferase activity
Gene Name:
ARO9
Uniprot ID:
P38840
Molecular weight:
58527.0
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate → an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Has aromatic amino acid transaminase activity. Also active with methionine, alpha-aminoadipate and leucine when phenylpyruvate is the amino acceptor
Gene Name:
ARO8
Uniprot ID:
P53090
Molecular weight:
56177.30078
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate → an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate → 2-oxoadipate + L-glutamate
General function:
Involved in prephenate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Prephenate = phenylpyruvate + H(2)O + CO(2)
Gene Name:
PHA2
Uniprot ID:
P32452
Molecular weight:
38224.80078
Reactions
Prephenate → phenylpyruvate + H(2)O + CO(2).