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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00679
Namemyristic acid
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionMyristic acid, also known as 14 or tetradecanoate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms. Myristic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Myristic acid is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-tetradecanecarboxylate
  • 1-tetradecanecarboxylic acid
  • 1-Tridecanecarboxylate
  • 1-Tridecanecarboxylic acid
  • 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate
  • 12-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate
  • Acide Myristique
  • acide tetradecanoique
  • Crodacid
  • Isopropyl myristate (NF)
  • myristate
  • Myristic acid
  • Myristinsaeure
  • myristoate
  • myristoic acid
  • n-Tetradecan-1-oate
  • n-Tetradecan-1-oic acid
  • n-Tetradecanoate
  • n-Tetradecanoic acid
  • n-tetradecoate
  • n-Tetradecoic acid
  • Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
  • Tetradecanoate
  • Tetradecanoic acid
  • tetradecoate
  • tetradecoic acid
  • 14
  • 14:0
  • 14:00
  • C14
  • CH3-[CH2]12-COOH
  • Myristic acid pure
  • Tetradecanoic (myristic) acid
  • Acid, tetradecanoic
  • Acid, myristic
  • FA(14:0)
CAS number544-63-8
WeightAverage: 228.3709
Monoisotopic: 228.20893014
InChI KeyTUNFSRHWOTWDNC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C14H28O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14(15)16/h2-13H2,1H3,(H,15,16)
IUPAC Nametetradecanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Namemyristic acid
Chemical FormulaC14H28O2
SMILESCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point53.9 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility0.00107 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP6.11 [SANGSTER (1993)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0017 g/LALOGPS
logP6.1ALOGPS
logP5.37ChemAxon
logS-5.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity67.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability30.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cell Envelope
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • Lipid Particle
  • Mitochondrion
  • Peroxisome
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
CoconutFDB002890
FattyFDB002890
SoapyFDB002890
WaxyFDB002890
SMPDB Pathways
Fatty acid biosynthesisPW002458 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Fatty acid biosynthesisec00061 Map00061
SMPDB Reactions
myristic acid + Malonate3-Oxohexadecanoic acid
trans-Tetra-dec-2-enoic acidmyristic acid
KEGG Reactions
lauric acid + malonyl-CoA + hydron + NADPHCarbon dioxide + NADP + myristic acid + water + Coenzyme A
myristic acid + malonyl-CoA + hydron + NADPHCarbon dioxide + NADP + water + Coenzyme A + Palmitic acid
hydron + myristic acid + malonyl-CoA + oxygen + NADPHNADP + Carbon dioxide + Coenzyme A + palmitoleic acid + water
Adenosine triphosphate + myristic acid + Coenzyme AAdenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Tetradecanoyl-CoA
water + myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] ↔ acyl-carrier protein + myristic acid + hydron
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Knoll, L. J., Schall, O. F., Suzuki, I., Gokel, G. W., Gordon, J. I. (1995). "Comparison of the reactivity of tetradecenoic acids, a triacsin, and unsaturated oximes with four purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid activation proteins." J Biol Chem 270:20090-20097.7650027
  • Cok, S. J., Martin, C. G., Gordon, J. I. (1998). "Transcription of INO2 and INO4 is regulated by the state of protein N-myristoylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Nucleic Acids Res 26:2865-2872.9611229
  • Jones, J. M., Nau, K., Geraghty, M. T., Erdmann, R., Gould, S. J. (1999). "Identification of peroxisomal acyl-CoA thioesterases in yeast and humans." J Biol Chem 274:9216-9223.10092594
  • Schneiter, R., Tatzer, V., Gogg, G., Leitner, E., Kohlwein, S. D. (2000). "Elo1p-dependent carboxy-terminal elongation of C14:1Delta(9) to C16:1Delta(11) fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 182:3655-3660.10850979
Synthesis Reference:Greaves, W. S.; Linstead, R. P.; Shephard, B. R.; Thomas, S. L. S.; Weedon, B. C. L. Anodic syntheses. I. New syntheses of stearic, myristic, and other acids. Journal of the Chemical Society (1950), 3326-30.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID28875
HMDB IDHMDB00806
Pubchem Compound ID11005
Kegg IDC06424
ChemSpider ID10539
FOODB IDFDB002890
WikipediaMyristic_acid
BioCyc IDCPD-7836

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of exogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. Contributes, with FAA1, to the activation of imported myristate
Gene Name:
FAA4
Uniprot ID:
P47912
Molecular weight:
77266.5
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of exogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. It may supplement intracellular myristoyl-CoA pools from exogenous myristate. Preferentially acts on C12:0-C16:0 fatty acids with myristic and pentadecanic acid (C15:0) having the highest activities
Gene Name:
FAA1
Uniprot ID:
P30624
Molecular weight:
77865.79688
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of endogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. This enzyme acts preferentially on C16 and C18 fatty acids with a cis-double bond at C-9-C-10
Gene Name:
FAA3
Uniprot ID:
P39002
Molecular weight:
77946.0
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in fatty acid elongase activity
Specific function:
May be a membrane bound enzyme involved in the highly specific elongation of saturated 14-carbon fatty acids (14:0) to 16-carbon species (16:0)
Gene Name:
ELO1
Uniprot ID:
P39540
Molecular weight:
36233.60156
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA → 3-oxoacyl-CoA + CoA + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of endogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. Preferentially acts on C9:0-C13:0 fatty acids although C7:0-C17:0 fatty acids are tolerated
Gene Name:
FAA2
Uniprot ID:
P39518
Molecular weight:
83437.10156
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long- chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The beta subunit contains domains for:[acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase
Gene Name:
FAS1
Uniprot ID:
P07149
Molecular weight:
228689.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADH + 2n NADPH → long-chain-acyl-CoA + n CoA + n CO(2) + 2n NAD(+) + 2n NADP(+).
Acetyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].
Malonyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].
(3R)-3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] → hexadec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H(2)O.
Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NAD(+) → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADH.
Oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H(2)O → [acyl-carrier-protein] + oleate.
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA thioesterase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH
Gene Name:
TES1
Uniprot ID:
P41903
Molecular weight:
40259.39844
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + H(2)O → CoA + palmitate.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Lipolytic activity towards triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols with short-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
TGL2
Uniprot ID:
P54857
Molecular weight:
37499.89844
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.
General function:
Involved in triglyceride lipase activity
Specific function:
Essential for lysis of subvacuolar cytoplasm to vacuole targeted bodies and intravacuolar autophagic bodies. Involved in the lysis of intravacuolar multivesicular body (MVB) vesicles
Gene Name:
ATG15
Uniprot ID:
P25641
Molecular weight:
58434.5
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Releases specific fatty acids from neutral lipid triacylglycerols (TAG) thereby supplying fatty acids to a general acylation process
Gene Name:
TGL3
Uniprot ID:
P40308
Molecular weight:
73611.79688
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Releases specific fatty acids from neutral lipid triacylglycerols (TAG) thereby supplying fatty acids to a general acylation process. May have a specific role in sporulation
Gene Name:
TGL5
Uniprot ID:
Q12043
Molecular weight:
84715.10156
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Releases specific fatty acids from neutral lipid triacylglycerols (TAG) thereby supplying fatty acids to a general acylation process. May have a specific role in sporulation
Gene Name:
TGL4
Uniprot ID:
P36165
Molecular weight:
102716.0
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.