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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00597
NameFADH2
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionFADH, also known as 1,5-dihydro-fad or FADH2, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavin nucleotides. These are nucleotides containing a flavin moiety. Flavin is a compound that contains the tricyclic isoalloxazine ring system, which bears 2 oxo groups at the 2- and 4-positions. FADH is a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). FADH exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In yeast, FADH is involved in the metabolic pathway called the tca cycle pathway.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,5-dihydro-FAD
  • 1,5-dihydro-P-5-ester with adenosine
  • Adenosine 5-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate)
  • Dihydro-FAD
  • Dihydroflavine-adenine dinucleotide
  • FAD
  • FADH2
  • FDA
  • flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)
  • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced)
  • flavin adenine dinucleotide reduced
  • Reduced flavine adenine dinucleotide
  • 1,5-Dihydro-riboflavin 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) p'->5'-ester with adenosine
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate), 5'-5'-ester with 5,10-dihydro-7,8-dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)alloxazine
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate), 5'->5'-ester with 5,10-dihydro-7,8-dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)alloxazine
  • Adenosine 5'-{3-[D-ribo-5-(7,8-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,10-tetrahydrobenzo[g]pteridin-10-yl)-2,3,4-trihydroxypentyl] dihydrogen diphosphate}
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate 5'-5'-ester with 5,10-dihydro-7,8-dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)alloxazine
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate, 5'-5'-ester with 5,10-dihydro-7,8-dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)alloxazine
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate, 5'->5'-ester with 5,10-dihydro-7,8-dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)alloxazine
  • Benzo[GR]pteridine riboflavin 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) deriv
  • Benzo[g]pteridine riboflavin 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) deriv
CAS number1910-41-4
WeightAverage: 787.5656
Monoisotopic: 787.172784519
InChI KeyYPZRHBJKEMOYQH-UYBVJOGSSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C27H35N9O15P2/c1-10-3-12-13(4-11(10)2)35(24-18(32-12)25(42)34-27(43)33-24)5-14(37)19(39)15(38)6-48-52(44,45)51-53(46,47)49-7-16-20(40)21(41)26(50-16)36-9-31-17-22(28)29-8-30-23(17)36/h3-4,8-9,14-16,19-21,26,32,37-41H,5-7H2,1-2H3,(H,44,45)(H,46,47)(H2,28,29,30)(H2,33,34,42,43)/t14-,15+,16+,19-,20+,21+,26+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}[({[(2R,3S,4S)-5-{7,8-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-1H,2H,3H,4H,5H,10H-benzo[g]pteridin-10-yl}-2,3,4-trihydroxypentyl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]phosphinic acid
Traditional IUPAC Namefadh(.)
Chemical FormulaC27H35N9O15P2
SMILESCC1=CC2=C(C=C1C)N(C[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1O)N1C=NC3=C1N=CN=C3N)C1=C(N2)C(=O)NC(=O)N1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavin nucleotides. These are nucleotides containing a flavin moiety. Flavin is a compound that contains the tricyclic isoalloxazine ring system, which bears 2 oxo groups at the 2- and 4-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassFlavin nucleotides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentFlavin nucleotides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Flavin nucleotide
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Flavin
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Alkyldiarylamine
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Pteridine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidone
  • Imidolactam
  • Benzenoid
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Polyol
  • Primary amine
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting pointNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water SolubilityNot AvailablePhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.65 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.93ALOGPS
logP-4.8ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.85ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count18ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count11ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area355.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity188.8 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability69.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • mitochondrion
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Citric Acid CyclePW000952 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Citric Acid Cycle 1434561204PW000970 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Fatty acid metabolismPW002460 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Oxidative phosphorylationPW002461 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Porphyrin MetabolismPW002462 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Fatty acid metabolismec00071 Map00071
Oxidative phosphorylationec00190 Map00190
Riboflavin metabolismec00740 Map00740
Steroid biosynthesisec00100 Map00100
Sulfur metabolismec00920 Map00920
SMPDB Reactions
Succinic acid + Coenzyme Q10 + FADFumaric acid + QH2 + FADH2
KEGG Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + FADFADH2 + Iminoaspartic acid + hydron
Fumaric acid + FADH2FAD + Succinic acid
Glycerol 3-phosphate + FADFADH2 + Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Ubiquinone-6 + FADH2FAD + Ubiquinol-6
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0g70-0024960400-5de09e4bdf0187b78529JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0001200900-b0740b3d33d50996ccdeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000m-0105900000-3abff26d5bb35f8527b8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0931700000-73f360589a13230eea7aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0932110400-58a2ec43460cf9df1c4dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0930000000-15d7e9b22a8286323cc5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0960000000-64746c5025e9c53c89b3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0159-1675510900-39158f1ef2e33daa689eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001l-4940100000-64cc07487da7b6c45ba2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a7i-4900000000-4da9166c58a097f7d7efJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Muratsubaki, H., Enomoto, K. (1998). "One of the fumarate reductase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the OSM1 gene." Arch Biochem Biophys 352:175-181.9587404
Synthesis Reference:Kavakli I Halil; Sancar Aziz Analysis of the role of intraprotein electron transfer in photoreactivation by DNA photolyase in vivo. Biochemistry (2004), 43(48), 15103-10.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17877
HMDB IDHMDB01197
Pubchem Compound ID446013
Kegg IDC01352
ChemSpider ID25057974
FOODB IDFDB030853
WikipediaFAD
BioCyc IDFADH2

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol
Gene Name:
GUT2
Uniprot ID:
P32191
Molecular weight:
72388.29688
Reactions
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone → glycerone phosphate + a quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Could be a fumarate reductase
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P32614
Molecular weight:
50843.69922
Reactions
Succinate + NAD(+) → fumarate + NADH.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Could be a fumarate reductase
Gene Name:
OSM1
Uniprot ID:
P21375
Molecular weight:
55064.80078
Reactions
General function:
Involved in 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
Subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). SDH1 and SDH2 form the catalytic dimer. Electrons flow from succinate to the FAD bound to SDH1, and sequentially through the iron-sulfur clusters bound to SDH2 and enter the membrane dimer formed by SDH3 and SDH4
Gene Name:
SDH2
Uniprot ID:
P21801
Molecular weight:
30230.90039
Reactions
Succinate + ubiquinone → fumarate + ubiquinol.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Transport of FAD from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix
Gene Name:
FLX1
Uniprot ID:
P40464
Molecular weight:
34408.89844