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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00423
NameAmmonium
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionAmmonium ions are a waste product of the metabolism of animals. In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea. In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss. Ammonium is an important source of nitrogen for many plant species, especially those growing on hypoxic soils. However, it is also toxic to most crop species and is rarely applied as a sole nitrogen source.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • ammonium
  • NH4+
  • [NH4](+)
  • AMMONIUM ion
  • Ammonium(1+)
  • NH4(+)
  • Ammonia ion
  • Ammonium chloride
  • Azanium
  • [NH4]+
CAS number14798-03-9
WeightAverage: 18.0385
Monoisotopic: 18.034374133
InChI KeyQGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-O
InChIInChI=1S/H3N/h1H3/p+1
IUPAC Nameazanium
Traditional IUPAC Nameazanium
Chemical FormulaH4N
SMILES[H][N+]([H])([H])[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other nonmetals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Amine
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Charge1
Melting pointNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility10.2 mg/mL at 20 oC [GREENWALD,I (1926)]PhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity16.31 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.38 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • extracellular
  • mitochondrion
  • nucleus
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Asparagine metabolismPW002274 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Cysteine MetabolismPW002383 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Glutamate MetabolismPW002376 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
NAD metabolismPW002421 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pyrimidine metabolismPW002469 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Pyrimidine metabolismec00240 Map00240
Sulfur metabolismec00920 Map00920
SMPDB Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + AmmoniumL-Asparagine + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + hydron
L-Asparagine + waterL-Aspartic acid + Ammonium
D-Alanine + water + QuinoneAmmonium + Pyruvic acid + Hydroquinone
L-Glutamic acid + water + NADOxoglutaric acid + Ammonium + NADH + hydron
NADPH + Ammonium + hydron + Oxoglutaric acidwater + NADP + L-Glutamic acid
KEGG Reactions
2,5-Diamino-6-(5-phosphono)ribitylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone + water + hydron5-Amino-6-(5'-phosphoribitylamino)uracil + Ammonium
water + hydron + AdenineHypoxanthine + Ammonium
Adenosine + water + hydronAmmonium + Inosine
Adenosine monophosphate + water + hydronInosinic acid + Ammonium
water + hydron + urea-1-carboxylic acidCarbon dioxide + Ammonium
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Moreira dos Santos, M., Thygesen, G., Kotter, P., Olsson, L., Nielsen, J. (2003). "Aerobic physiology of redox-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains modified in the ammonium assimilation for increased NADPH availability." FEMS Yeast Res 4:59-68.14554197
  • Richter, G., Fischer, M., Krieger, C., Eberhardt, S., Luttgen, H., Gerstenschlager, I., Bacher, A. (1997). "Biosynthesis of riboflavin: characterization of the bifunctional deaminase-reductase of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 179:2022-2028.9068650
  • ter Schure, E. G., Sillje, H. H., Vermeulen, E. E., Kalhorn, J. W., Verkleij, A. J., Boonstra, J., Verrips, C. T. (1998). "Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 5):1451-1462.9611819
  • Saint-Marc, C., Daignan-Fornier, B. (2004). "GUD1 (YDL238c) encodes Saccharomyces cerevisiae guanine deaminase, an enzyme expressed during post-diauxic growth." Yeast 21:1359-1363.15565584
  • Yoo, H. S., Cooper, T. G. (1991). "The ureidoglycollate hydrolase (DAL3) gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 7:693-698.1776360
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID28938
HMDB IDHMDB0041827
Pubchem Compound ID223
Kegg IDC01342
ChemSpider ID73580
FOODB IDNot Available
WikipediaAmmonium
BioCyc IDAMMONIUM

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln). Required for HMG2-induced ER-remodeling
Gene Name:
HER2
Uniprot ID:
Q03557
Molecular weight:
50918.0
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine → ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
URA7
Uniprot ID:
P28274
Molecular weight:
64709.80078
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) → ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
GLN1
Uniprot ID:
P32288
Molecular weight:
41705.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) → ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN1
Uniprot ID:
P49089
Molecular weight:
64469.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN2
Uniprot ID:
P49090
Molecular weight:
64592.5
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen. Plays an important role in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis
Gene Name:
URA8
Uniprot ID:
P38627
Molecular weight:
63055.69922
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) → ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
QNS1
Uniprot ID:
P38795
Molecular weight:
80684.89844
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and CO(2)
Gene Name:
DUR1
Uniprot ID:
P32528
Molecular weight:
201830.0
Reactions
ATP + urea + HCO(3)(-) → ADP + phosphate + urea-1-carboxylate.
Urea-1-carboxylate + H(2)O → 2 CO(2) + 2 NH(3).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. This includes the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). Acts also as component of the glycine cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase complex), which catalyzes the degradation of glycine
Gene Name:
LPD1
Uniprot ID:
P09624
Molecular weight:
54009.69922
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD(+) → protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH.
General function:
Involved in ureidoglycolate hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Utilization of purines as secondary nitrogen sources, when primary sources are limiting
Gene Name:
DAL3
Uniprot ID:
P32459
Molecular weight:
21726.59961
Reactions
(S)-ureidoglycolate + H(2)O → glyoxylate + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'- phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)
Gene Name:
PDX3
Uniprot ID:
P38075
Molecular weight:
26908.0
Reactions
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + H(2)O + O(2) → pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + O(2) → pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
O(4)-succinyl-L-homoserine + L-cysteine = L- cystathionine + succinate
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q04533
Molecular weight:
74312.70313
Reactions
O(4)-succinyl-L-homoserine + L-cysteine → L-cystathionine + succinate.
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
L-cystathionine + H(2)O = L-cysteine + NH(3) + 2-oxobutanoate
Gene Name:
CYS3
Uniprot ID:
P31373
Molecular weight:
42541.69922
Reactions
L-cystathionine + H(2)O → L-cysteine + NH(3) + 2-oxobutanoate.
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
This enzyme scavenge exogenous and endogenous cytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine for UMP synthesis
Gene Name:
CDD1
Uniprot ID:
Q06549
Molecular weight:
15535.90039
Reactions
Cytidine + H(2)O → uridine + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in deaminase activity
Specific function:
Adenosine + H(2)O = inosine + NH(3)
Gene Name:
AAH1
Uniprot ID:
P53909
Molecular weight:
39634.69922
Reactions
Adenosine + H(2)O → inosine + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
L-threonine = 2-oxobutanoate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ILV1
Uniprot ID:
P00927
Molecular weight:
63830.69922
Reactions
L-threonine → 2-oxobutanoate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
CHA1
Uniprot ID:
P25379
Molecular weight:
39301.0
Reactions
L-serine → pyruvate + NH(3).
L-threonine → 2-oxobutanoate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Converts cytosine to uracil or 5-methylcytosine to thymine by deaminating carbon number 4
Gene Name:
FCY1
Uniprot ID:
Q12178
Molecular weight:
17506.90039
Reactions
Cytosine + H(2)O → uracil + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the deamidation of nicotinamide, an early step in the NAD(+) salvage pathway. Positively regulates SIR2-mediated silencing and longevity by preventing the accumulation of intracellular nicotinamide, an inhibitor of SIR2, during times of stress. Acts also on nicotinyl hydroxamate
Gene Name:
PNC1
Uniprot ID:
P53184
Molecular weight:
24993.19922
Reactions
Nicotinamide + H(2)O → nicotinate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADH
Gene Name:
GDH2
Uniprot ID:
P33327
Molecular weight:
124331.0
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ASP3-1
Uniprot ID:
P11163
Molecular weight:
38686.19922
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O → L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
GDH3
Uniprot ID:
P39708
Molecular weight:
49626.80078
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
Specific function:
Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps
Gene Name:
HEM3
Uniprot ID:
P28789
Molecular weight:
36674.19922
Reactions
4 porphobilinogen + H(2)O → hydroxymethylbilane + 4 NH(3).
General function:
Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase complex) catalyzes the degradation of glycine
Gene Name:
GCV1
Uniprot ID:
P48015
Molecular weight:
44468.69922
Reactions
[Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + tetrahydrofolate → [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ASP1
Uniprot ID:
P38986
Molecular weight:
41394.80078
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O → L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
GDH1
Uniprot ID:
P07262
Molecular weight:
49569.60156
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) → 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
L-cystathionine + H(2)O = L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate
Gene Name:
STR3
Uniprot ID:
P53101
Molecular weight:
51828.0
Reactions
L-cystathionine + H(2)O → L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in deaminase activity
Specific function:
AMP deaminase plays a critical role in energy metabolism
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P15274
Molecular weight:
93300.79688
Reactions
AMP + H(2)O → IMP + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in riboflavin biosynthesis. Converts 2,5- diamino-6-(ribosylamino)-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-phosphate into 5- amino-6-(ribosylamino)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione 5'-phosphate
Gene Name:
RIB2
Uniprot ID:
Q12362
Molecular weight:
67035.29688
Reactions
tRNA uridine → tRNA pseudouridine.
2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + H(2)O → 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
L-cystathionine + H(2)O = L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate
Gene Name:
IRC7
Uniprot ID:
P43623
Molecular weight:
36971.10156
Reactions
L-cystathionine + H(2)O → L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Supplies the nucleotide substrate for thymidylate synthetase
Gene Name:
DCD1
Uniprot ID:
P06773
Molecular weight:
35645.69922
Reactions
dCMP + H(2)O → dUMP + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia
Gene Name:
GUD1
Uniprot ID:
Q07729
Molecular weight:
55203.19922
Reactions
Guanine + H(2)O → xanthine + NH(3).

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter for ammonium (both charged and uncharged NH3 and NH4) to use as a nitrogen source. Can also transport methylamine. The affinity of MEP1 is about twenty times lower than that of MEP2. MEP3 has the lowest affinity
Gene Name:
MEP1
Uniprot ID:
P40260
Molecular weight:
54201.60156
General function:
Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter protein required for ammonia export. Induced in rho(0) cells, probably to eliminate the excess ammonia that arises because of a potential defect in ammonia assimilation in those cells
Gene Name:
ATO3
Uniprot ID:
Q12359
Molecular weight:
30028.09961
General function:
Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter for ammonium (both charged and uncharged NH3 and NH4) to use as a nitrogen source. The affinity of MEP2 is about twenty times higher than that of MEP1. MEP3 has the lowest affinity. Under ammonium limitation acts as an ammonium sensor, generating a signal that leads to pseudohyphal growth
Gene Name:
MEP2
Uniprot ID:
P41948
Molecular weight:
53400.19922
General function:
Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter for ammonium (both charged and uncharged NH3 and NH4) to use as a nitrogen source. The affinity of MEP2 is about twenty times higher than that of MEP1. MEP3 has the lowest affinity
Gene Name:
MEP3
Uniprot ID:
P53390
Molecular weight:
53689.39844