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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00388
NameKetoleucine
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionKetoleucine, also known as 2-oxoisocaproate or 2-oxoleucine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms. Ketoleucine is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Ketoleucine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within yeast, ketoleucine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, L-glutamic acid and ketoleucine can be biosynthesized from L-leucine and oxoglutaric acid; which is mediated by the enzyme branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial. In addition, L-glutamic acid and ketoleucine can be biosynthesized from L-leucine and oxoglutaric acid; which is catalyzed by the enzyme branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic. In yeast, ketoleucine is involved in the metabolic pathway called the leucine degradation pathway. Ketoleucine is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-Keto-4-methylpentanoic acid
  • 2-keto-4-Methylvalerate
  • 2-keto-4-Methylvaleric acid
  • 2-Ketoisocaproate
  • 2-Ketoisocaproic acid
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylpentanoate
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylvalerate
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylvaleric acid
  • 2-Oxoisocaproate
  • 2-Oxoisocaproic acid
  • 2-Oxoleucine
  • 4-methyl-2-oxo-Valerate
  • 4-methyl-2-oxo-Valeric acid
  • 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoate
  • 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
  • 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid
  • a-Ketoisocaproate
  • a-Ketoisocaproic acid
  • a-Ketoisocapronate
  • a-Ketoisocapronic acid
  • a-Oxoisocaproate
  • a-Oxoisocaproic acid
  • alpha-keto-isocaproate
  • alpha-keto-isocaproic acid
  • alpha-ketoisocaproate
  • alpha-Ketoisocaproic acid
  • alpha-Ketoisocapronate
  • alpha-Ketoisocapronic acid
  • alpha-Oxoisocaproate
  • alpha-Oxoisocaproic acid
  • Isopropylpyruvic acid
  • ketoisocaproate
  • ketoisocaproic acid
  • Methyloxovalerate
  • Methyloxovaleric acid
  • oxoisocaproate
  • oxoisocaproic acid
  • Pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-2-oxo-
  • 4-Methyl-2-oxovalerate
  • Α-ketoisocaproate
  • Α-ketoisocaproic acid
  • Keto-leucine
CAS number816-66-0
WeightAverage: 130.1418
Monoisotopic: 130.062994186
InChI KeyBKAJNAXTPSGJCU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C6H10O3/c1-4(2)3-5(7)6(8)9/h4H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)
IUPAC Name4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Nameketoisocaproate
Chemical FormulaC6H10O3
SMILES[H]OC(=O)C(=O)C([H])([H])C([H])(C([H])([H])[H])C([H])([H])[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Sub ClassShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Charge0
Melting point8-10 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility32 mg/mL [HMP experimental]PhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.76 g/LALOGPS
logP0.82ALOGPS
logP1.5ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity31.77 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • mitochondrion
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
FruityFDB012607
SMPDB Pathways
Leucine BiosynthesisPW002475 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Leucine DegradationPW002490 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesisec00290 Map00290
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradationec00280 Map00280
SMPDB Reactions
Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic acidOxoglutaric acid + L-Leucine
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acidL-Glutamic acid + Ketoleucine
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acidL-Glutamic acid + Ketoleucine
Ketoleucine + hydron3-methylbutanal + Carbon dioxide
KEGG Reactions
(2S)-2-Isopropyl-3-oxosuccinate + hydronKetoleucine + Carbon dioxide
Ketoleucine + hydronCarbon dioxide + 3-methylbutanal
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acidKetoleucine + L-Glutamic acid
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-000i-9400000000-49d055f04bfe1877ac5bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-029j-8930000000-c6c54bf6ee2995a2195bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-1910000000-0ba38257e25873312809JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0a5c-4930000000-61247369a805fa2a77a7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-000i-9510000000-8bfc5a54e29f65edf361JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-00lj-9620000000-aa8409ceb2359d903f38JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9400000000-49d055f04bfe1877ac5bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-029j-8930000000-c6c54bf6ee2995a2195bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-1910000000-0ba38257e25873312809JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a5c-4930000000-61247369a805fa2a77a7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9510000000-8bfc5a54e29f65edf361JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00lj-9620000000-aa8409ceb2359d903f38JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ks-7930000000-4e9cfd715fa884d30e7fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9500000000-709ebcb57f006703c269JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e410bce23706f826f8ddJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9400000000-c4f06cea1e27a2b24660JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-bed7ac074a60210971e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9200000000-2fa08d2b4df406cf63eaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014j-9000000000-045be8e8dca3f93d45baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-237fa8ad6bfb929be31eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004r-9700000000-8d38d24fce78b1ff13e6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a59-9000000000-759cfc0817917283d1a5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-2a068ada71fbe0a5a988JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-58e61e31f3c96d84d799JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-237fa8ad6bfb929be31eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004r-9700000000-8d38d24fce78b1ff13e6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a59-9000000000-759cfc0817917283d1a5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-2a068ada71fbe0a5a988JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-58e61e31f3c96d84d799JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-556a0d1cf568609752d1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-004r-5900000000-20f6923c8ed45e9fa088JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-08gr-7900000000-31021fda89eb6535185fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0btm-9200000000-3bf5df4b557ef87267f4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-37839bf70647d24b94a4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-4900000000-796467909d1d4c087a07JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01ri-9400000000-0abcd021721f32c10e42JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-015l-9000000000-5c33a47dfeb09a182983JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Dickinson, J. R., Lanterman, M. M., Danner, D. J., Pearson, B. M., Sanz, P., Harrison, S. J., Hewlins, M. J. (1997). "A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the metabolism of leucine to isoamyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 272:26871-26878.9341119
  • Dickinson, J. R., Harrison, S. J., Hewlins, M. J. (1998). "An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273:25751-25756.9748245
  • Vuralhan, Z., Morais, M. A., Tai, S. L., Piper, M. D., Pronk, J. T. (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534-4541.12902239
  • Kispal, G., Steiner, H., Court, D. A., Rolinski, B., Lill, R. (1996). "Mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain amino acid transaminases from yeast, homologs of the myc oncogene-regulated Eca39 protein." J Biol Chem 271:24458-24464.8798704
Synthesis Reference:Tabuchi, Takeshi; Abe, Matazo. Fermentative preparation of a-ketoisocaproic acid. Jpn. Tokkyo Koho (1970), 3 pp.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID48430
HMDB IDHMDB00695
Pubchem Compound ID70
Kegg IDC00233
ChemSpider ID69
FOODB IDFDB012607
Wikipedia IDNot Available
BioCyc ID2K-4CH3-PENTANOATE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Involved in cell cycle regulation
Gene Name:
BAT2
Uniprot ID:
P47176
Molecular weight:
41624.39844
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate → 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine → (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine → 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Appears to be involved in the regulation of the transition from G1 to S phase in the cell cycle. High copy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the ABC transporter, ATM1
Gene Name:
BAT1
Uniprot ID:
P38891
Molecular weight:
43595.69922
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate → 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine → (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine → 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4- methylpentanoate (3-isopropylmalate) to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2- oxopentanoate. The product decarboxylates to 4-methyl-2 oxopentanoate
Gene Name:
LEU2
Uniprot ID:
P04173
Molecular weight:
38952.5
Reactions
(2R,3S)-3-isopropylmalate + NAD(+) → 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
One of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) involved in amino acid catabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids). In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids, phenylalanine, tryptophan, (and probably tyrosine), but also isoleucine, whereas leucine is a low efficiency and valine and pyruvate are no substrates. In analogy to the pyruvate decarboxylases the enzyme may in a side-reaction catalyze condensation (or carboligation) reactions leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
ARO10
Uniprot ID:
Q06408
Molecular weight:
71383.79688
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
One of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) involved in amino acid catabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids). In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids leucine and isoleucine, whereas valine, aromatic amino acids, and pyruvate are no substrates. In analogy to the pyruvate decarboxylases the enzyme may in a side-reaction catalyze condensation (or carboligation) reactions leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins. The enzyme is also positively regulating the thiamine metabolism by a molecular mechanism that may involve thiamine concentration sensing and signal transmission
Gene Name:
THI3
Uniprot ID:
Q07471
Molecular weight:
68365.79688
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).