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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00312
NameAcetyl-CoA
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionAcetyl-CoA is a thioester between coenzyme A and acetic acid. It is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. It is produced during the second step of aerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate decarboxylation, which occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • ac-CoA
  • ac-Coenzyme A
  • ac-S-CoA
  • ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • acetyl coenzyme-A
  • acetyl-CoA
  • acetyl-Coenzyme A
  • acetyl-S-CoA
  • acetyl-S-Coenzyme A
  • acetylcoenzyme-A
  • S-acetate CoA
  • S-acetate Coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl coenzyme A
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl-coenzyme A
  • Acetylcoenzyme A
  • coenzyme A, Acetyl
  • Acetyl CoA
  • CoA, Acetyl
CAS number72-89-9
WeightAverage: 809.571
Monoisotopic: 809.125773051
InChI KeyZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C23H38N7O17P3S/c1-12(31)51-7-6-25-14(32)4-5-26-21(35)18(34)23(2,3)9-44-50(41,42)47-49(39,40)43-8-13-17(46-48(36,37)38)16(33)22(45-13)30-11-29-15-19(24)27-10-28-20(15)30/h10-11,13,16-18,22,33-34H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,25,32)(H,26,35)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H2,24,27,28)(H2,36,37,38)/t13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2-({[({[(3R)-3-[(2-{[2-(acetylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional IUPAC Nameacetyl-CoA
Chemical FormulaC23H38N7O17P3S
SMILES[H]O[C@@]([H])(C(=O)N([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C(=O)N([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])SC(=O)C([H])([H])[H])C(C([H])([H])[H])(C([H])([H])[H])C([H])([H])OP(=O)(O[H])OP(=O)(O[H])OC([H])([H])[C@@]1([H])O[C@@]([H])(N2C([H])=NC3=C2N=C([H])N=C3N([H])[H])[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@]1([H])OP(=O)(O[H])O[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl coas. These are organic compounds containing a coenzyme A substructure linked to an acyl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct ParentAcyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Ribonucleoside 3'-phosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • N-acyl-amine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carbothioic s-ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting pointNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water SolubilityNot AvailablePhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.3 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.58ALOGPS
logP-5.9ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area363.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count20ChemAxon
Refractivity172.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability70.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • mitochondrion
  • lipid particle
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • nucleus
  • peroxisome
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismPW002413 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism CE(10:0)PW002545 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism CE(12:0)PW002548 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism CE(14:0)PW002544 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism CE(16:0)PW002550 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismec00520 Map00520
Butanoate metabolismec00650 Map00650
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)ec00020 Map00020
Fatty acid biosynthesisec00061 Map00061
Fatty acid elongation in mitochondriaec00062 Map00062
SMPDB Reactions
Pyruvic acid + Coenzyme A + NADAcetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH
Coenzyme A + S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide-E ↔ Acetyl-CoA + Dihydrolipoamide-E
Acetyl-CoA + water + Oxalacetic acidCitric acid + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen carbonateADP + Pyrophosphate + malonyl-CoA
L-Homoserine + Acetyl-CoACoenzyme A + Acetylhomoserine
KEGG Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + water2-Isopropylmalic acid + hydron + Coenzyme A
NAD + water + 4-Coumaroyl-CoA + Coenzyme ANADH + Acetyl-CoA + hydron + 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA
acyl-carrier protein + Acetyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Coenzyme A
3-oxooctadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme APalmityl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
Coenzyme A + 3-oxohexacosanoyl-CoAAcetyl-CoA + Tetracosanoyl-CoA
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Abadjieva, A., Pauwels, K., Hilven, P., Crabeel, M. (2001). "A new yeast metabolon involving at least the two first enzymes of arginine biosynthesis: acetylglutamate synthase activity requires complex formation with acetylglutamate kinase." J Biol Chem 276:42869-42880.11553611
  • Chang, L. F., Cunningham, T. S., Gatzek, P. R., Chen, W. J., Kohlhaw, G. B. (1984). "Cloning and characterization of yeast Leu4, one of two genes responsible for alpha-isopropylmalate synthesis." Genetics 108:91-106.6090272
  • Kunze, M., Kragler, F., Binder, M., Hartig, A., Gurvitz, A. (2002). "Targeting of malate synthase 1 to the peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells depends on growth on oleic acid medium." Eur J Biochem 269:915-922.11846793
  • van den Berg, M. A., de Jong-Gubbels, P., Kortland, C. J., van Dijken, J. P., Pronk, J. T., Steensma, H. Y. (1996). "The two acetyl-coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ with respect to kinetic properties and transcriptional regulation." J Biol Chem 271:28953-28959.8910545
  • Velot, C., Lebreton, S., Morgunov, I., Usher, K. C., Srere, P. A. (1999). "Metabolic effects of mislocalized mitochondrial and peroxisomal citrate synthases in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochemistry 38:16195-16204.10587442
  • Hoja, U., Marthol, S., Hofmann, J., Stegner, S., Schulz, R., Meier, S., Greiner, E., Schweizer, E. (2004). "HFA1 encoding an organelle-specific acetyl-CoA carboxylase controls mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 279:21779-21786.14761959
  • Hiltunen, J. K., Mursula, A. M., Rottensteiner, H., Wierenga, R. K., Kastaniotis, A. J., Gurvitz, A. (2003). "The biochemistry of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:35-64.12697341
  • Geisbrecht, B. V., Zhu, D., Schulz, K., Nau, K., Morrell, J. C., Geraghty, M., Schulz, H., Erdmann, R., Gould, S. J. (1998). "Molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Delta3, Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase." J Biol Chem 273:33184-33191.9837886
  • Buu, L. M., Chen, Y. C., Lee, F. J. (2003). "Functional characterization and localization of acetyl-CoA hydrolase, Ach1p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 278:17203-17209.12606555
  • Mio, T., Yamada-Okabe, T., Arisawa, M., Yamada-Okabe, H. (1999). "Saccharomyces cerevisiae GNA1, an essential gene encoding a novel acetyltransferase involved in UDP-N-acetylglucosamine synthesis." J Biol Chem 274:424-429.9867860
  • Jia, Y. K., Becam, A. M., Herbert, C. J. (1997). "The CIT3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a second mitochondrial isoform of citrate synthase." Mol Microbiol 24:53-59.9140965
  • Verstrepen, K. J., Van Laere, S. D., Vanderhaegen, B. M., Derdelinckx, G., Dufour, J. P., Pretorius, I. S., Winderickx, J., Thevelein, J. M., Delvaux, F. R. (2003). "Expression levels of the yeast alcohol acetyltransferase genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 control the formation of a broad range of volatile esters." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5228-5237.12957907
  • Kosuge, T., Gao, D., Hoshino, T. (2000). "Analysis of the methionine biosynthetic pathway in the extremely thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus." J Biosci Bioeng 90:271-279.16232856
  • Takahashi, H., McCaffery, J. M., Irizarry, R. A., Boeke, J. D. (2006). "Nucleocytosolic acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase is required for histone acetylation and global transcription." Mol Cell 23:207-217.16857587
  • Kastaniotis, A. J., Autio, K. J., Sormunen, R. T., Hiltunen, J. K. (2004). "Htd2p/Yhr067p is a yeast 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase essential for mitochondrial function and morphology." Mol Microbiol 53:1407-1421.15387819
Synthesis Reference:Tucek, S. The synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A and acetylcholine from citrate and acetate in the nerve endings of mammalian brain. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, General Subjects (1966), 117(1), 278-80.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID15351
HMDB IDHMDB01206
Pubchem Compound ID6302
Kegg IDC00024
ChemSpider ID24785355
FOODB IDFDB022491
WikipediaAcetyl-CoA
BioCyc IDACETYL-COA

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. This includes the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). Acts also as component of the glycine cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase complex), which catalyzes the degradation of glycine
Gene Name:
LPD1
Uniprot ID:
P09624
Molecular weight:
54009.69922
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD(+) → protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
An aldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O = an acid + NADH
Gene Name:
ALD4
Uniprot ID:
P46367
Molecular weight:
56723.19922
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O → an acid + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
An aldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O = an acid + NADH
Gene Name:
ALD6
Uniprot ID:
P54115
Molecular weight:
54413.69922
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O → an acid + NADH.
General function:
Involved in glutamate N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes two activities which are involved in the cyclic version of arginine biosynthesis:the synthesis of acetylglutamate from glutamate and acetyl-CoA, and of ornithine by transacetylation between acetylornithine and glutamate
Gene Name:
ARG7
Uniprot ID:
Q04728
Molecular weight:
47848.30078
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + L-glutamate → L-ornithine + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate → CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
This isozyme is necessary for growth on acetate as sole C-source
Gene Name:
MLS1
Uniprot ID:
P30952
Molecular weight:
62790.60156
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + glyoxylate → (S)-malate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
This isozyme is involved in the degradation of allantoin (purine catabolism)
Gene Name:
DAL7
Uniprot ID:
P21826
Molecular weight:
62793.39844
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + glyoxylate → (S)-malate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
GNA1
Uniprot ID:
P43577
Molecular weight:
18134.80078
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate → CoA + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in O-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + L-homoserine = CoA + O-acetyl-L- homoserine
Gene Name:
MET2
Uniprot ID:
P08465
Molecular weight:
53659.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-homoserine → CoA + O-acetyl-L-homoserine.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + 2-oxoglutarate = (R)-2- hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + CoA
Gene Name:
LYS21
Uniprot ID:
Q12122
Molecular weight:
48593.80078
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + 2-oxoglutarate → (R)-2-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2-oxoisovalerate) to form 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (2-isopropylmalate). Redundant to LEU4, responsible of about 20% of alpha-IPMS activity. Involved in leucine synthesis
Gene Name:
LEU9
Uniprot ID:
Q12166
Molecular weight:
67199.60156
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
N-terminal acetylation of proteins. N-acetylation plays a role in normal eukaryotic translation and processing, protect against proteolytic degradation and protein turnover. NAT2 acts on proteins with a N-terminal methionine
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P37293
Molecular weight:
32804.19922
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + peptide → N(alpha)-acetylpeptide + CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA in the biosynthesis of mevalonate, an intermediate required for the biosynthesis of sterols and nonsterol isoprenoids
Gene Name:
ERG10
Uniprot ID:
P41338
Molecular weight:
41728.39844
Reactions
2 acetyl-CoA → CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria
Gene Name:
CAT2
Uniprot ID:
P32796
Molecular weight:
77241.20313
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + carnitine → CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
General function:
Transcription
Specific function:
Component of the NatC N-terminal acetyltransferase, which catalyzes acetylation of the N-terminus Met of L-A virus Gag protein. MAK31 is necessary for the structural stability of L-A double-stranded RNA-containing particles. Necessary for growth at 37 degrees Celsius as well as for maintenance of the killer plasmid
Gene Name:
MAK31
Uniprot ID:
P23059
Molecular weight:
9724.5
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the transfer of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria. May also be involved in the metabolism of acetate and of ethanol
Gene Name:
YAT1
Uniprot ID:
P80235
Molecular weight:
77764.79688
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + carnitine → CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Presumably involved in regulating the intracellular acetyl-CoA pool for fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid oxidation. It may be involved in overall regulation of acetylation during melatonin synthesis
Gene Name:
ACH1
Uniprot ID:
P32316
Molecular weight:
58711.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O → CoA + acetate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Component of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of sphingolipids, the condensation of serine with palmitoyl CoA to form the long chain base 3-ketosphinganine
Gene Name:
LCB1
Uniprot ID:
P25045
Molecular weight:
62206.60156
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + L-serine → CoA + 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA + O(2) = trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + H(2)O(2)
Gene Name:
POX1
Uniprot ID:
P13711
Molecular weight:
84041.39844
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + O(2) → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase
Gene Name:
ERG13
Uniprot ID:
P54839
Molecular weight:
55013.10156
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + acetoacetyl-CoA → (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + CoA.
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic component of the NatC N-terminal acetyltransferase, which catalyzes acetylation of the N-terminus Met of L-A virus Gag protein
Gene Name:
MAK3
Uniprot ID:
Q03503
Molecular weight:
20456.59961
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + peptide → N(alpha)-acetylpeptide + CoA.
General function:
Involved in 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2-oxoisovalerate) to form 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (2-isopropylmalate)
Gene Name:
LEU4
Uniprot ID:
P06208
Molecular weight:
68408.29688
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Displays enzymatic activity both for medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl ester synthesis and hydrolysis (esterase activity). MCFA are toxic for yeast and this enzyme could thus be involved in their detoxification by esterification
Gene Name:
EHT1
Uniprot ID:
P38295
Molecular weight:
51254.80078
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alcohol → CoA + an acetyl ester.
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of acetyl-CoA. Provides the acetyl-CoA source for histone acetylation in the nucleus. "Aerobic" isozyme of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, which supports growth on nonfermentable carbon sources such as glycerol and ethanol. May be required for assimilation of ethanol and acetate
Gene Name:
ACS1
Uniprot ID:
Q01574
Molecular weight:
79140.10156
Reactions
ATP + acetate + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acyl carrier activity
Specific function:
Carrier of the growing fatty acid chain in fatty acid biosynthesis. May be involved in the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids. Accessory and non-catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), which functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain
Gene Name:
ACP1
Uniprot ID:
P32463
Molecular weight:
13942.5
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + 2-oxoglutarate = (R)-2- hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + CoA
Gene Name:
LYS20
Uniprot ID:
P48570
Molecular weight:
47098.39844
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + 2-oxoglutarate → (R)-2-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of acetyl-CoA. Provides the acetyl-CoA source for histone acetylation in the nucleus. "Anaerobic" isozyme of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, which is required for growth on fermentable carbon sources such as glucose. May be involved in the PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) bypass
Gene Name:
ACS2
Uniprot ID:
P52910
Molecular weight:
75491.10156
Reactions
ATP + acetate + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in alcohol O-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the esterification of isoamyl alcohol and various other alcohols by acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
ATF1
Uniprot ID:
P40353
Molecular weight:
61035.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alcohol → CoA + an acetyl ester.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA
Gene Name:
POT1
Uniprot ID:
P27796
Molecular weight:
44729.89844
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA → CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long- chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The beta subunit contains domains for:[acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase
Gene Name:
FAS1
Uniprot ID:
P07149
Molecular weight:
228689.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADH + 2n NADPH → long-chain-acyl-CoA + n CoA + n CO(2) + 2n NAD(+) + 2n NADP(+).
Acetyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].
Malonyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].
(3R)-3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] → hexadec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H(2)O.
Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NAD(+) → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADH.
Oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H(2)O → [acyl-carrier-protein] + oleate.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long- chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The alpha subunit contains domains for:acyl carrier protein, 3- oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[acyl- carrier-protein] synthase. This subunit coordinates the binding of the six beta subunits to the enzyme complex
Gene Name:
FAS2
Uniprot ID:
P19097
Molecular weight:
206945.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADH + 2n NADPH → long-chain-acyl-CoA + n CoA + n CO(2) + 2n NAD(+) + 2n NADP(+).
Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] → 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) + [acyl-carrier-protein].
(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP(+) → 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA
Gene Name:
CIT3
Uniprot ID:
P43635
Molecular weight:
53810.69922
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate → citrate + CoA.
propanoyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate → (2R,3S)-2-hydroxybutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate + CoA
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Displays enzymatic activity both for medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl ester synthesis and hydrolysis (esterase activity). MCFA are toxic for yeast and this enzyme could thus be involved in their detoxification by esterification
Gene Name:
EEB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02891
Molecular weight:
51723.19922
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alcohol → CoA + an acetyl ester.
General function:
Involved in alcohol O-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + an acetyl ester
Gene Name:
ATF2
Uniprot ID:
P53296
Molecular weight:
61897.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alcohol → CoA + an acetyl ester.
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the shutteling of acetyl-CoA in the cell
Gene Name:
YAT2
Uniprot ID:
P40017
Molecular weight:
103333.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + carnitine → CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2)
Gene Name:
PDA2
Uniprot ID:
P12695
Molecular weight:
51817.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine → CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA
Gene Name:
CIT2
Uniprot ID:
P08679
Molecular weight:
51412.89844
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate → citrate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA
Gene Name:
CIT1
Uniprot ID:
P00890
Molecular weight:
53359.60156
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate → citrate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in arginine biosynthetic process
Specific function:
N-acetylglutamate synthase involved in arginine biosynthesis
Gene Name:
ARG2
Uniprot ID:
P40360
Molecular weight:
65609.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate → CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acts as catalytic subunit of the RNA polymerase II elongator complex, which is a major histone acetyltransferase component of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) holoenzyme and is involved in transcriptional elongation. Association with elongating RNAPII requires a hyperphosphorylated state of the RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD). Elongator binds to both naked and nucleosomal DNA, can acetylate both core and nucleosomal histones, and is involved in chromatin remodeling. It acetylates histones H3, preferentially at 'Lys-14', and H4, preferentially at 'Lys-8'. It functions as a gamma-toxin target (TOT); disruption of the complex confers resistance to Kluyveromyces lactis toxin zymocin (pGKL1 killer toxin). May also be involved in sensitiviy to Pichia inositovora toxin. May be involved in tRNA modification. ELP3 is required for the complex integrity and for the association of the complex with nascent RNA transcript. Independently, ELP3 may be involved in polarized exocytosis. Is required for an early step in synthesis of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm5) groups present on uridines at the wobble position in tRNA
Gene Name:
ELP3
Uniprot ID:
Q02908
Molecular weight:
63656.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → CoA + acetyl-[histone].
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol
Gene Name:
GLR1
Uniprot ID:
P41921
Molecular weight:
53440.60156
Reactions
2 glutathione + NADP(+) → glutathione disulfide + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic component of the NatA N-terminal acetyltransferase, which catalyzes acetylation of proteins beginning with Met-Ser, Met-Gly and Met-Ala. N-acetylation plays a role in normal eukaryotic translation and processing, protect against proteolytic degradation and protein turnover
Gene Name:
ARD1
Uniprot ID:
P07347
Molecular weight:
27602.90039
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + peptide → N(alpha)-acetylpeptide + CoA.
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (FAS) type II pathway. Responsible for the production of the mitochondrial malonyl-CoA, used for the biosynthesis of the cofactor lipoic acid. This protein carries three functions:biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase, and carboxyltransferase
Gene Name:
HFA1
Uniprot ID:
P32874
Molecular weight:
259161.0
Reactions
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) → ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
ATP + biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) → ADP + phosphate + carboxy-biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein].
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Carries out three functions:biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase
Gene Name:
FAS3
Uniprot ID:
Q00955
Molecular weight:
250351.0
Reactions
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) → ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
ATP + biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) → ADP + phosphate + carboxy-biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein].
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
N-acetyltransferase whose physiological acetyl acceptor substrate is still unknown. In vitro, histone acetylation is very weak
Gene Name:
HPA3
Uniprot ID:
P39979
Molecular weight:
20698.5
Reactions
acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid → CoA + an N-acetyl-D-amino acid
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2)
Gene Name:
PDB1
Uniprot ID:
P32473
Molecular weight:
40053.19922
Reactions
Pyruvate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine → [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase, which catalyzes acetylation of the amino- terminal methionine residues of all proteins beginning with Met- Asp or Met-Glu and of some proteins beginning with Met-Asn or Met- Met. NatB acetylates TPM1 protein and regulates tropomyocin-actin interactions
Gene Name:
NAT3
Uniprot ID:
Q06504
Molecular weight:
22921.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + peptide → N(alpha)-acetylpeptide + CoA.