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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00301
NamePalmityl-CoA
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionPalmityl-CoA is a fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • hexadecanoyl CoA
  • hexadecanoyl Coenzyme A
  • palmitoyl CoA
  • palmitoyl coenzyme a
  • palmitoyl-CoA
  • palmitoyl-Coenzyme A
  • Palmityl-CoA
  • Palmityl-Coenzyme A
  • s-hexadecanoate
  • s-hexadecanoate CoA
  • s-hexadecanoate Coenzyme A
  • s-hexadecanoic acid
  • s-palmitoylcoenzyme a
  • CoA, Palmitoyl
  • CoA, Hexadecanoyl
  • coenzyme A, Palmitoyl
  • Palmityl CoA
  • CoA, Palmityl
CAS number1763-10-6
WeightAverage: 1005.943
Monoisotopic: 1005.344873947
InChI KeyMNBKLUUYKPBKDU-TZIIWEFPSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C37H66N7O17P3S/c1-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-28(46)65-21-20-39-27(45)18-19-40-35(49)32(48)37(2,3)23-58-64(55,56)61-63(53,54)57-22-26-31(60-62(50,51)52)30(47)36(59-26)44-25-43-29-33(38)41-24-42-34(29)44/h24-26,30-32,36,47-48H,4-23H2,1-3H3,(H,39,45)(H,40,49)(H,53,54)(H,55,56)(H2,38,41,42)(H2,50,51,52)/t26-,30-,31-,32?,36-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-2-[({[({3-[(2-{[2-(hexadecanoylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)methyl]-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-2-{[({3-[(2-{[2-(hexadecanoylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]methyl}-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxyphosphonic acid
Chemical FormulaC37H66N7O17P3S
SMILES[H]OC([H])(C(=O)N([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C(=O)N([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])SC(=O)C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])[H])C(C([H])([H])[H])(C([H])([H])[H])C([H])([H])OP(=O)(O[H])OP(=O)(O[H])OC([H])([H])[C@@]1([H])O[C@@]([H])(N2C([H])=NC3=C2N=C([H])N=C3N([H])[H])[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@]1([H])OP(=O)(O[H])O[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acyl coas. These are acyl CoAs where the group acylated to the coenzyme A moiety is a long aliphatic chain of 13 to 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Ribonucleoside 3'-phosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • N-acyl-amine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carbothioic s-ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting pointNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water SolubilityNot AvailablePhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.74 g/LALOGPS
logP2.35ALOGPS
logP-0.5ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area363.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count34ChemAxon
Refractivity236.65 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability100.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • lipid particle
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • peroxisome
  • vacuole
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acidsPW002403 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (docosanoyl)PW002408 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (icosanoyl)PW002434 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (stearoyl)PW002435 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (tetracosanoyl-CoA)PW002404 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acidsec01040 Map01040
Fatty acid elongation in mitochondriaec00062 Map00062
Fatty acid metabolismec00071 Map00071
Glycerophospholipid metabolismec00564 Map00564
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchor biosynthesisec00563 Map00563
SMPDB Reactions
Palmityl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + hydronCarbon dioxide + 3-oxooctadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Palmitic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Coenzyme AAdenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Palmityl-CoA
Palmityl-CoA + L-Serine + hydron Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxide + 3-Dehydrosphinganine
Palmityl-CoA + L-Serine3-Dehydrosphinganine + Carbon dioxide
Glycerone phosphate + Palmityl-CoACoenzyme A + 1-palmitoylglycerone 3-phosphate
KEGG Reactions
3-oxooctadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme APalmityl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
Palmityl-CoA + oxygenHydrogen peroxide + hexadec-2-enoyl-CoA
Palmityl-CoA + 6-(alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol ↔ 6-(alpha-D-glucosaminyl)-O-acyl-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + Coenzyme A
Adenosine triphosphate + Coenzyme A + Palmitic acidAdenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Palmityl-CoA
malonyl-CoA + Tetradecanoyl-CoA + hydron + NADPHPalmityl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADP + water + Coenzyme A
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Dickson, R. C., Sumanasekera, C., Lester, R. L. (2006). "Functions and metabolism of sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Prog Lipid Res 45:447-465.16730802
  • Cowart, L. A., Hannun, Y. A. (2005). "Using genomic and lipidomic strategies to investigate sphingolipid function in the yeast heat-stress response." Biochem Soc Trans 33:1166-1169.16246073
  • Obeid, L. M., Okamoto, Y., Mao, C. (2002). "Yeast sphingolipids: metabolism and biology." Biochim Biophys Acta 1585:163-171.12531550
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID15525
HMDB IDHMDB01338
Pubchem Compound ID986
Kegg IDC00154
ChemSpider ID14902
FOODB IDFDB022562
WikipediaPalmitoyl-CoA
BioCyc IDPALMITYL-COA

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of exogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. Contributes, with FAA1, to the activation of imported myristate
Gene Name:
FAA4
Uniprot ID:
P47912
Molecular weight:
77266.5
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria
Gene Name:
CAT2
Uniprot ID:
P32796
Molecular weight:
77241.20313
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + carnitine → CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Component of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of sphingolipids, the condensation of serine with palmitoyl CoA to form the long chain base 3-ketosphinganine
Gene Name:
LCB1
Uniprot ID:
P25045
Molecular weight:
62206.60156
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + L-serine → CoA + 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of exogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. It may supplement intracellular myristoyl-CoA pools from exogenous myristate. Preferentially acts on C12:0-C16:0 fatty acids with myristic and pentadecanic acid (C15:0) having the highest activities
Gene Name:
FAA1
Uniprot ID:
P30624
Molecular weight:
77865.79688
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of endogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. This enzyme acts preferentially on C16 and C18 fatty acids with a cis-double bond at C-9-C-10
Gene Name:
FAA3
Uniprot ID:
P39002
Molecular weight:
77946.0
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in fatty acid elongase activity
Specific function:
May be a membrane bound enzyme involved in the highly specific elongation of saturated 14-carbon fatty acids (14:0) to 16-carbon species (16:0)
Gene Name:
ELO1
Uniprot ID:
P39540
Molecular weight:
36233.60156
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA → 3-oxoacyl-CoA + CoA + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
May be an acyltransferase with an altered substrate specificity that enables it to use a C-26-CoA in place of the C-16 or C-18-CoAs used by the wild-type protein
Gene Name:
SLC1
Uniprot ID:
P33333
Molecular weight:
33886.69922
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Esterification, concomitant with transport, of endogenous long-chain fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. Preferentially acts on C9:0-C13:0 fatty acids although C7:0-C17:0 fatty acids are tolerated
Gene Name:
FAA2
Uniprot ID:
P39518
Molecular weight:
83437.10156
Reactions
ATP + a long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA → AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of sphingolipids, the condensation of serine with palmitoyl CoA to form the long chain base 3-ketosphinganine
Gene Name:
LCB2
Uniprot ID:
P40970
Molecular weight:
63110.19922
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + L-serine → CoA + 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
G-3-P/dihydroxyacetone phosphate dual substrate-specific sn-1 acyltransferase
Gene Name:
GPT1
Uniprot ID:
P32784
Molecular weight:
85693.5
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
Acyl-CoA + glycerone phosphate → CoA + acylglycerone phosphate.
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the shutteling of acetyl-CoA in the cell
Gene Name:
YAT2
Uniprot ID:
P40017
Molecular weight:
103333.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + carnitine → CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA thioesterase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA thioesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), providing the potential to regulate intracellular levels of acyl-CoAs, free fatty acids and CoASH
Gene Name:
TES1
Uniprot ID:
P41903
Molecular weight:
40259.39844
Reactions
Palmitoyl-CoA + H(2)O → CoA + palmitate.
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
G-3-P/dihydroxyacetone phosphate dual substrate-specific sn-1 acyltransferase
Gene Name:
GPT2
Uniprot ID:
P36148
Molecular weight:
83644.0
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
Acyl-CoA + glycerone phosphate → CoA + acylglycerone phosphate.
General function:
Involved in 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferas
Specific function:
Membrane-bound O-acyltransferase that mediates the incorporation of unsaturated acyl chains into the sn-2 position of phopholipids. Preferentially acylates lysophosphocholine, but also lysophosphoethanolamine and lysophosphatidylglycerol
Gene Name:
ALE1
Uniprot ID:
Q08548
Molecular weight:
72227.39844
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
Acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine → CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.
Acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine → CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Releases specific fatty acids from neutral lipid triacylglycerols (TAG) thereby supplying fatty acids to a general acylation process. May have a specific role in sporulation
Gene Name:
TGL5
Uniprot ID:
Q12043
Molecular weight:
84715.10156
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Releases specific fatty acids from neutral lipid triacylglycerols (TAG) thereby supplying fatty acids to a general acylation process. May have a specific role in sporulation
Gene Name:
TGL4
Uniprot ID:
P36165
Molecular weight:
102716.0
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + H(2)O → diacylglycerol + a carboxylate.
General function:
lipid particle organization
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase with preference for oleoyl-CoA. Involved in triacylglyceride homeostasis and lipid droplet formation. Involved in vacuolar protein sorting.
Gene Name:
LOA1
Uniprot ID:
Q06508
Molecular weight:
33815.635
Reactions

Transporters

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May be involved in long-chain fatty acids uptake, and thus may play a pivotal role in regulating their accessibility prior to metabolic utilization. May play an important role in uptake of these hydrophobic compounds under conditions where fatty acid synthesis is compromised
Gene Name:
FAT1
Uniprot ID:
P38225
Molecular weight:
77140.29688
Reactions