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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00271
NameL-Glutamic acid
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionGlutamate (abbreviated as Glu or E) is an alpha-amino acid. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. It is classified as a polar, acidic (pKa = 4.3) amino acid with a side chain carboxylic acid. Glutamic acid and alpha-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Krebs cycle, are interconvertible by transamination. Glutamic acid can therefore enter the Krebs cycle for energy metabolism, and be converted by the enzyme glutamine synthetase into glutamine, which is one of the key players in nitrogen metabolism. Note also that glutamic acid is easily converted into proline. First, the γ carboxyl group is reduced to the aldehyde, yielding glutamate semialdehyde. The aldehyde then reacts with the alpha-amino group, eliminating water as it forms the Schiff base. In a second reduction step, the Schiff base is reduced, yielding proline. Yeast cells contain 3 pathways for the synthesis of glutamate. Two pathways are mediated by two isoforms of glutamate dehydrogenase, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3. The third pathway is driven by the combined activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase, encoded by GLN1 and GLT1, respectively. Studies of GDH1 and GDH3 regulation indicate that the cell uses these isoforms under different growth conditions. Expression of GDH3 is induced by ethanol and repressed by glucose, whereas GDH1 expression is high in either carbon source. Gdh1p uses alpha-ketoglutarate at a higher rate than Gdh3p. Thus, under fermentative growth conditions, Gdh1p drives glutamate biosynthesis, whereas in nonfermentable or limiting carbon sources, Gdh3p is the key isoform involved in balancing distribution of alpha-ketoglutarate to glutamate biosynthesis and energy metabolism. Free glutamic acid is present in a wide variety of foods, including cheese and soy sauce, and is responsible for umami, one of the five basic tastes of the human sense of taste. Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in the form of its sodium salt monosodium glutamate (MSG).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (2S)-2-ammoniopentanedioate
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-Glutamate
  • (S)-Glutamic acid
  • 1-amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 2-Aminoglutarate
  • 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  • 2-Aminopentanedioate
  • 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • a-Aminoglutarate
  • a-Aminoglutaric acid
  • a-Glutamate
  • a-Glutamic acid
  • Aciglut
  • alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • alpha-Glutamate
  • alpha-Glutamic acid
  • aminoglutarate
  • aminoglutaric acid
  • glt
  • glu
  • Glusate
  • glut
  • Glutacid
  • Glutamicol
  • Glutamidex
  • Glutaminate
  • Glutaminic acid
  • Glutaminol
  • Glutaton
  • L-(+)-Glutamate
  • L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • L-a-Aminoglutarate
  • L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-glu
  • L-Glutamate
  • L-glutamate(1-)
  • L-glutamic acid monoanion
  • L-glutamic acid, ion(1-)
  • L-Glutaminate
  • L-Glutaminic acid
CAS number56-86-0
WeightAverage: 147.1293
Monoisotopic: 147.053157781
InChI KeyInChIKey=WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-glutamic acid
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
SMILES[H]OC(=O)C([H])([H])C([H])([H])[C@]([H])(N([H])[H])C(=O)O[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids and Polypeptides
ClassAmino Acids
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Oxonium Compounds
  • Short-chain Fatty Acids
Substituents
  • Organic Oxonium Compounds
  • Short-chain Fatty Acids
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point224 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility8.57 mg/mL at 25 oC [BULL,HB et al. (1978)]PhysProp
LogP-3.69 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6ALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.49 Å3ChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • extracellular
  • mitochondrion
  • nucleus
  • peroxisome
  • vacuole
  • cytoplasm
Pathways
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism ‐ 00430
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism ‐ 00250
  • Arginine and proline metabolism ‐ 00330
  • Glutathione metabolism ‐ 00480
  • Histidine metabolism ‐ 00340
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism ‐ 00860
  • Butanoate metabolism ‐ 00650
  • Nitrogen metabolism ‐ 00910
Concentrations
Intracellular Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationSubstrateGrowth ConditionsCitation
36180 ± 724 µM YPD mediaaerobicPMID: 7654310
45939 ± 919 µM YPG mediaaerobicPMID: 7654310
12199 ± 244 µM SD mediaaerobicPMID: 7654310
30812 ± 616 µM SG mediaaerobicPMID: 7654310
21053 ± 421 µM M (molasses)aerobicPMID: 7654310
47473 ± 949 µM MA (molasses)aerobicPMID: 7654310
14848 ± 297 µM MB (molasses)aerobicPMID: 7654310
56326 ± 1126 µM MAB (molasses)aerobicPMID: 7654310
81470 ± 7495 µM Synthetic medium with 20 g/L glucoseaerobicPMID: 12584756
42500 ± 7500 µM Minimal medium supplemented with glucoseaerobic;resting cellsPMID: 4578278
37500 ± 12500 µM Minimal medium supplemented with ammonium and glucoseaerobic;growing cellsPMID: 4578278
Details describing the conversion of literature concentrations can be found here.
Extracellular Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationSubstrateGrowth ConditionsCitation
3194 ± 0 µM hops, malted barleyanaerobicAlcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
Details describing the conversion of literature concentrations can be found here.
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
References:
  • Martinez-Force, E., Benitez, T. (1995). "Effects of varying media, temperature, and growth rates on the intracellular concentrations of yeast amino acids." Biotechnol Prog 11:386-392.7654310
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  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Arevalo-Rodriguez, M., Calderon, I. L., Holmberg, S. (1999). "Mutations that cause threonine sensitivity identify catalytic and regulatory regions of the aspartate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 15:1331-1345.10509015
  • Vuralhan, Z., Morais, M. A., Tai, S. L., Piper, M. D., Pronk, J. T. (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534-4541.12902239
  • Takada, Y., Noguchi, T. (1985). "Characteristics of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a regulatory enzyme in the glyoxylate pathway of glycine and serine biosynthesis from tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates." Biochem J 231:157-163.3933486
  • Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
  • Hans, M. A., Heinzle, E., Wittmann, C. (2003). "Free intracellular amino acid pools during autonomous oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biotechnol Bioeng 82:143-151.12584756
  • Dickinson, J. R., Lanterman, M. M., Danner, D. J., Pearson, B. M., Sanz, P., Harrison, S. J., Hewlins, M. J. (1997). "A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the metabolism of leucine to isoamyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 272:26871-26878.9341119
  • Cavero, S., Vozza, A., del Arco, A., Palmieri, L., Villa, A., Blanco, E., Runswick, M. J., Walker, J. E., Cerdan, S., Palmieri, F., Satrustegui, J. (2003). "Identification and metabolic role of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Microbiol 50:1257-1269.14622413
  • Crombie, T., Boyle, J. P., Coggins, J. R., Brown, A. J. (1994). "The folding of the bifunctional TRP3 protein in yeast is influenced by a translational pause which lies in a region of structural divergence with Escherichia coli indoleglycerol-phosphate synthase." Eur J Biochem 226:657-664.8001582
  • Moreira dos Santos, M., Thygesen, G., Kotter, P., Olsson, L., Nielsen, J. (2003). "Aerobic physiology of redox-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains modified in the ammonium assimilation for increased NADPH availability." FEMS Yeast Res 4:59-68.14554197
  • Watzele, G., Tanner, W. (1989). "Cloning of the glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase gene from yeast. Pheromonal regulation of its transcription." J Biol Chem 264:8753-8758.2656689
  • Verleur, N., Elgersma, Y., Van Roermund, C. W., Tabak, H. F., Wanders, R. J. (1997). "Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase encoded by the AAT2 gene is targeted to the peroxisomes in oleate-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 247:972-980.9288922
  • Belhumeur, P., Fortin, N., Clark, M. W. (1994). "A gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which codes for a protein with significant homology to the bacterial 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase." Yeast 10:385-389.8017107
  • ter Schure, E. G., Sillje, H. H., Vermeulen, E. E., Kalhorn, J. W., Verkleij, A. J., Boonstra, J., Verrips, C. T. (1998). "Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 5):1451-1462.9611819
  • Kispal, G., Steiner, H., Court, D. A., Rolinski, B., Lill, R. (1996). "Mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain amino acid transaminases from yeast, homologs of the myc oncogene-regulated Eca39 protein." J Biol Chem 271:24458-24464.8798704
  • Bayly, A. M., Berglez, J. M., Patel, O., Castelli, L. A., Hankins, E. G., Coloe, P., Hopkins Sibley, C., Macreadie, I. G. (2001). "Folic acid utilisation related to sulfa drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." FEMS Microbiol Lett 204:387-390.11731153
  • Ramos, F., Dubois, E., Pierard, A. (1988). "Control of enzyme synthesis in the lysine biosynthetic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evidence for a regulatory role of gene LYS14." Eur J Biochem 171:171-176.3123231
  • Nookaew, I., Jewett, M. C., Meechai, A., Thammarongtham, C., Laoteng, K., Cheevadhanarak, S., Nielsen, J., Bhumiratana, S. (2008). "The genome-scale metabolic model iIN800 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its validation: a scaffold to query lipid metabolism." BMC Syst Biol 2:71.18687109
  • Cherest, H., Thomas, D., Surdin-Kerjan, Y. (2000). "Polyglutamylation of folate coenzymes is necessary for methionine biosynthesis and maintenance of intact mitochondrial genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 275:14056-14063.10799479
  • Dickinson, J. R., Harrison, S. J., Hewlins, M. J. (1998). "An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273:25751-25756.9748245
  • Tzagoloff, A., Shtanko, A. (1995). "Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic isoleucyl-, glutamyl- and arginyl-tRNA synthetases of yeast are encoded by separate genes." Eur J Biochem 230:582-586.7607232
  • Iraqui, I., Vissers, S., Cartiaux, M., Urrestarazu, A. (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257:238-248.9491083
  • Valenzuela, L., Ballario, P., Aranda, C., Filetici, P., Gonzalez, A. (1998). "Regulation of expression of GLT1, the gene encoding glutamate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 180:3533-3540.9657994
  • Brandriss, M. C., Magasanik, B. (1979). "Genetics and physiology of proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: enzyme induction by proline." J Bacteriol 140:498-503.387737
  • Coleman, S. T., Fang, T. K., Rovinsky, S. A., Turano, F. J., Moye-Rowley, W. S. (2001). "Expression of a glutamate decarboxylase homologue is required for normal oxidative stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 276:244-250.11031268
  • Gancedo, J. M., Gancedo, C. (1973). "Concentrations of intermediary metabolites in yeast." Biochimie 55:205-211.4578278
  • Castrillo, J. I., Zeef, L. A., Hoyle, D. C., Zhang, N., Hayes, A., Gardner, D. C., Cornell, M. J., Petty, J., Hakes, L., Wardleworth, L., Rash, B., Brown, M., Dunn, W. B., Broadhurst, D., O'Donoghue, K., Hester, S. S., Dunkley, T. P., Hart, S. R., Swainston, N., Li, P., Gaskell, S. J., Paton, N. W., Lilley, K. S., Kell, D. B., Oliver, S. G. (2007). "Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast." J Biol 6:4.17439666
Synthesis Reference: Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID:16015
HMDB ID:HMDB00148
Pubchem Compound ID:33032
Kegg ID:C00025
ChemSpider ID:30572
Wikipedia:Glutamic_acid
BioCyc ID:GLT

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D- ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2- (formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ADE6
Uniprot ID:
P38972
Molecular weight:
148904.0
Reactions
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Involved in amino sugar synthesis (formation of chitin, supplies the amino sugars of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins)
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A2P2R3
Molecular weight:
29272.0
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
TRP3
Uniprot ID:
P00937
Molecular weight:
53488.89844
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxy-D-ribulose 5-phosphate = 1-C-(3-indolyl)-glycerol 3-phosphate + CO(2) + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Involved in amino sugar synthesis (formation of chitin, supplies the amino sugars of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins)
Gene Name:
GFA1
Uniprot ID:
P14742
Molecular weight:
80046.0
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
CPA1
Uniprot ID:
P07258
Molecular weight:
45361.19922
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
IGPS catalyzes the conversion of PRFAR and glutamine to IGP, AICAR and glutamate. The glutamine amidotransferase domain provides the ammonia necessary to the cyclase domain to produce IGP and AICAR from PRFAR
Gene Name:
HIS7
Uniprot ID:
P33734
Molecular weight:
61067.60156
Reactions
5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine = imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in carboxyl- or carbamoyltransferase activity
Specific function:
This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding three enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, and ATCase)
Gene Name:
URA2
Uniprot ID:
P07259
Molecular weight:
245124.0
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
Carbamoyl phosphate + L-aspartate = phosphate + N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate.
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln). Required for HMG2-induced ER-remodeling
Gene Name:
HER2
Uniprot ID:
Q03557
Molecular weight:
50918.0
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine = ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
CPA2
Uniprot ID:
P03965
Molecular weight:
123914.0
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
URA7
Uniprot ID:
P28274
Molecular weight:
64709.80078
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
GLN1
Uniprot ID:
P32288
Molecular weight:
41705.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln)
Gene Name:
PET112
Uniprot ID:
P33893
Molecular weight:
61842.19922
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine = ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
TRP2
Uniprot ID:
P00899
Molecular weight:
56767.0
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
GUA1
Uniprot ID:
P38625
Molecular weight:
58481.80078
Reactions
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN1
Uniprot ID:
P49089
Molecular weight:
64469.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Forms L-glutamate from L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. Represents an alternative pathway to L-glutamate dehydrogenase for the biosynthesis of L-glutamate. Participates with glutamine synthetase in ammonia assimilation processes. The enzyme is specific for NADH, L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate
Gene Name:
GLT1
Uniprot ID:
Q12680
Molecular weight:
238100.0
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NAD(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADH.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN2
Uniprot ID:
P49090
Molecular weight:
64592.5
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
ADE4
Uniprot ID:
P04046
Molecular weight:
56718.89844
Reactions
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen. Plays an important role in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis
Gene Name:
URA8
Uniprot ID:
P38627
Molecular weight:
63055.69922
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine. Required for the synthesis of 4-aminobenzoate (PABA), an important component in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis
Gene Name:
ABZ1
Uniprot ID:
P37254
Molecular weight:
88543.5
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
QNS1
Uniprot ID:
P38795
Molecular weight:
80684.89844
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln)
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P53260
Molecular weight:
20786.80078
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine = ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L- tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA)
Gene Name:
BNA3
Uniprot ID:
P47039
Molecular weight:
50081.89844
Reactions
L-kynurenine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NADP(+) + H(2)O = L-glutamate + L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADPH
Gene Name:
LYS9
Uniprot ID:
P38999
Molecular weight:
48917.30078
Reactions
N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NADP(+) + H(2)O = L-glutamate + L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N- acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ARG8
Uniprot ID:
P18544
Molecular weight:
46681.10156
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes two activities which are involved in the cyclic version of arginine biosynthesis:the synthesis of acetylglutamate from glutamate and acetyl-CoA, and of ornithine by transacetylation between acetylornithine and glutamate
Gene Name:
ARG7
Uniprot ID:
Q04728
Molecular weight:
47848.30078
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + L-glutamate = L-ornithine + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Involved in cell cycle regulation
Gene Name:
BAT2
Uniprot ID:
P47176
Molecular weight:
41624.39844
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Appears to be involved in the regulation of the transition from G1 to S phase in the cell cycle. High copy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the ABC transporter, ATM1
Gene Name:
BAT1
Uniprot ID:
P38891
Molecular weight:
43595.69922
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
General function:
Involved in arginine biosynthetic process
Specific function:
N-acetylglutamate synthase involved in arginine biosynthesis
Gene Name:
ARG2
Uniprot ID:
P40360
Molecular weight:
65609.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-cysteine ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
Gene Name:
GSH1
Uniprot ID:
P32477
Molecular weight:
78252.89844
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3- (imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
HIS5
Uniprot ID:
P07172
Molecular weight:
42645.69922
Reactions
L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-(imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3- phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4- phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine
Gene Name:
SER1
Uniprot ID:
P33330
Molecular weight:
43415.19922
Reactions
O-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-phosphonooxypyruvate + L-glutamate.
4-phosphonooxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives
Gene Name:
FOL3
Uniprot ID:
Q12676
Molecular weight:
47850.80078
Reactions
ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADH
Gene Name:
GDH2
Uniprot ID:
P33327
Molecular weight:
124331.0
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
GDH3
Uniprot ID:
P39708
Molecular weight:
49626.80078
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
GDH1
Uniprot ID:
P07262
Molecular weight:
49569.60156
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction:glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu)
Gene Name:
MSE1
Uniprot ID:
P48525
Molecular weight:
61602.69922
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P28273
Molecular weight:
140426.0
Reactions
ATP + 5-oxo-L-proline + 2 H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to glutamate to form glutamate 5-phosphate which rapidly cyclizes to 5- oxoproline
Gene Name:
PRO1
Uniprot ID:
P32264
Molecular weight:
47161.69922
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate = ADP + L-glutamate 5-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives
Gene Name:
RMA1
Uniprot ID:
P36001
Molecular weight:
48142.89844
Reactions
ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Has aromatic amino acid transaminase activity and kynurenine aminotransferase activity
Gene Name:
ARO9
Uniprot ID:
P38840
Molecular weight:
58527.0
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Has aromatic amino acid transaminase activity. Also active with methionine, alpha-aminoadipate and leucine when phenylpyruvate is the amino acceptor
Gene Name:
ARO8
Uniprot ID:
P53090
Molecular weight:
56177.30078
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-oxoadipate + L-glutamate
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 H(2)O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H
Gene Name:
PUT2
Uniprot ID:
P07275
Molecular weight:
64434.60156
Reactions
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 H(2)O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol
Gene Name:
AAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q01802
Molecular weight:
51795.10156
Reactions
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism
Gene Name:
AAT2
Uniprot ID:
P23542
Molecular weight:
46057.30078
Reactions
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L- glutamate
Gene Name:
ALT2
Uniprot ID:
P52892
Molecular weight:
56769.30078
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Required for the degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is important for utilization of GABA as nitrogen source and for oxidative stress tolerance. Deaminates GABA to succinate semialdehyde, which in turn is converted to succinate by the succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase UGA2. Cannot transaminate beta-alanine (BAL)
Gene Name:
UGA1
Uniprot ID:
P17649
Molecular weight:
52945.69922
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L- glutamate
Gene Name:
ALT1
Uniprot ID:
P52893
Molecular weight:
66421.10156
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in the turnover of the vacuolar glutathione and in the supply of growth requirements during nitrogen starvation
Gene Name:
ECM38
Uniprot ID:
Q05902
Molecular weight:
73179.79688
Reactions
(5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = peptide + 5-L-glutamyl amino acid.
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2)
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q04792
Molecular weight:
65989.5
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
L-ornithine + a 2-oxo acid = L-glutamate 5- semialdehyde + an L-amino acid
Gene Name:
CAR2
Uniprot ID:
P07991
Molecular weight:
46085.60156
Reactions
L-ornithine + a 2-oxo acid = L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + an L-amino acid.
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives
Gene Name:
MET7
Uniprot ID:
Q08645
Molecular weight:
62150.89844
Reactions
ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction:glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu)
Gene Name:
GUS1
Uniprot ID:
P46655
Molecular weight:
80842.0
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu).

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Permease for various amino acids as well as for GABA. Can also transport L-cysteine and beta-alanine
Gene Name:
GAP1
Uniprot ID:
P19145
Molecular weight:
65654.89844
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Can transport glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, asparagine, serine, alanine and glycine
Gene Name:
DIP5
Uniprot ID:
P53388
Molecular weight:
68096.70313
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Broad substrate range permease which transports asparagine and glutamine with intermediate specificity. Also transports Ala, Cys, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Tyr and Val. Important for the utilization of amino acids as a nitrogen source
Gene Name:
AGP1
Uniprot ID:
P25376
Molecular weight:
69670.70313
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
General amino acid permease with broad substrate specificity
Gene Name:
AGP3
Uniprot ID:
P43548
Molecular weight:
61051.19922
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent mitochondrial aspartate and glutamate carrier. Transport of glutamate in mitochondria is required for mitochondrial transamination reactions and ornithine synthesis. Plays also a role in malate-aspartate NADH shuttle, which is critical for growth on acetate and fatty acids
Gene Name:
AGC1
Uniprot ID:
Q12482
Molecular weight:
104303.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in amino acid efflux from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. Capable of transporting aspartate and glutamate. Requires ATP for function
Gene Name:
AVT6
Uniprot ID:
P40074
Molecular weight:
48839.69922