Identification
YMDB ID: YMDB00271
Name: L-Glutamic acid
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Strain: Baker's yeast
Description: Glutamate (abbreviated as Glu or E) is an alpha-amino acid. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. It is classified as a polar, acidic (pKa = 4.3) amino acid with a side chain carboxylic acid. Glutamic acid and alpha-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Krebs cycle, are interconvertible by transamination. Glutamic acid can therefore enter the Krebs cycle for energy metabolism, and be converted by the enzyme glutamine synthetase into glutamine, which is one of the key players in nitrogen metabolism. Note also that glutamic acid is easily converted into proline. First, the γ carboxyl group is reduced to the aldehyde, yielding glutamate semialdehyde. The aldehyde then reacts with the alpha-amino group, eliminating water as it forms the Schiff base. In a second reduction step, the Schiff base is reduced, yielding proline. Yeast cells contain 3 pathways for the synthesis of glutamate. Two pathways are mediated by two isoforms of glutamate dehydrogenase, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3. The third pathway is driven by the combined activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase, encoded by GLN1 and GLT1, respectively. Studies of GDH1 and GDH3 regulation indicate that the cell uses these isoforms under different growth conditions. Expression of GDH3 is induced by ethanol and repressed by glucose, whereas GDH1 expression is high in either carbon source. Gdh1p uses alpha-ketoglutarate at a higher rate than Gdh3p. Thus, under fermentative growth conditions, Gdh1p drives glutamate biosynthesis, whereas in nonfermentable or limiting carbon sources, Gdh3p is the key isoform involved in balancing distribution of alpha-ketoglutarate to glutamate biosynthesis and energy metabolism. Free glutamic acid is present in a wide variety of foods, including cheese and soy sauce, and is responsible for umami, one of the five basic tastes of the human sense of taste. Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in the form of its sodium salt monosodium glutamate (MSG).
Structure: Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | SMILES | InChI
Synonyms:
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (2S)-2-ammoniopentanedioate
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-Glutamate
  • (S)-Glutamic acid
  • 1-amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 2-Aminoglutarate
  • 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  • 2-Aminopentanedioate
  • 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • a-Aminoglutarate
  • a-Aminoglutaric acid
  • a-Glutamate
  • a-Glutamic acid
  • Aciglut
  • alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • alpha-Glutamate
  • alpha-Glutamic acid
  • aminoglutarate
  • aminoglutaric acid
  • glt
  • glu
  • Glusate
  • glut
  • Glutacid
  • Glutamicol
  • Glutamidex
  • Glutaminate
  • Glutaminic acid
  • Glutaminol
  • Glutaton
  • L-(+)-Glutamate
  • L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • L-a-Aminoglutarate
  • L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-glu
  • L-Glutamate
  • L-glutamate(1-)
  • L-glutamic acid monoanion
  • L-glutamic acid, ion(1-)
  • L-Glutaminate
  • L-Glutaminic acid
Chemical Formula:
C5H9NO4
Weight: Average: 147.1293
Monoisotopic: 147.053157781
InChI Key: InChIKey=WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI:
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
Plain Text
CAS number: 56-86-0
IUPAC Name:
(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:
L-glutamic acid
SMILES:
[H]OC(=O)C([H])([H])C([H])([H])[C@]([H])(N([H])[H])C(=O)O[H]
Plain Text
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom: Organic Compounds
Super Class: Amino Acids and Polypeptides
Class: Amino Acids
Sub Class: Alpha Amino Acids
Other Descriptors:
  • Organic Oxonium Compounds
  • Short-chain Fatty Acids
Substituents:
  • glutaric_acid
  • carboxylic acid
  • primary aliphatic amine (alkylamine)
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Charge: 0
Melting point: 224 °C
Experimental Properties:
Property Value Source
Water Solubility: 8.57 mg/mL at 25 oC [BULL,HB et al. (1978)] PhysProp
LogP: -3.69 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)] PhysProp
Predicted Properties:
Property Value Source
Water Solubility: 8.06e+01 g/l ALOGPS
LogP: -3.54 ALOGPS
LogP: -3.241447075983049 ChemAxon Molconvert
LogS: -0.26 ALOGPS
pKa: 4.3 ChemAxon Molconvert
Hydrogen Acceptor Count: 5 ChemAxon Molconvert
Hydrogen Donor Count: 3 ChemAxon Molconvert
Polar Surface Area: 100.62 A2 ChemAxon Molconvert
Rotatable Bond Count: 4 ChemAxon Molconvert
Refractivity: 31.3 ChemAxon Molconvert
Polarizability: 13.5 ChemAxon Molconvert
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:
  • extracellular
  • mitochondrion
  • nucleus
  • peroxisome
  • vacuole
  • cytoplasm
Pathways:
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism 00430 Link_out
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism 00250 Link_out
  • Arginine and proline metabolism 00330 Link_out
  • Glutathione metabolism 00480 Link_out
  • Histidine metabolism 00340 Link_out
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism 00860 Link_out
  • Butanoate metabolism 00650 Link_out
  • Nitrogen metabolism 00910 Link_out
Concentrations
Intracellular Concentration Substrate Growth Conditions Citation
36180 ± 724 µM YPD media aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
45939 ± 919 µM YPG media aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
12199 ± 244 µM SD media aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
30812 ± 616 µM SG media aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
21053 ± 421 µM M (molasses) aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
47473 ± 949 µM MA (molasses) aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
14848 ± 297 µM MB (molasses) aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
56326 ± 1126 µM MAB (molasses) aerobic PMID: 7654310 Link_out
81470 ± 7495 µM Synthetic medium with 20 g/L glucose aerobic PMID: 12584756 Link_out
42500 ± 7500 µM Minimal medium supplemented with glucose aerobic;resting cells PMID: 4578278 Link_out
37500 ± 12500 µM Minimal medium supplemented with ammonium and glucose aerobic;growing cells PMID: 4578278 Link_out
Extracellular Concentration Substrate Growth Conditions Citation
3194 ± 0 µM hops, malted barley anaerobic Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
Details describing the conversion of literature concentrations can be found here.
Spectra
Experimental Low Energy QqQ MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental Medium Energy QqQ MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental High Energy QqQ MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum view
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum view
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum view
Experimental 2D TOCSY Spectrum view
Experimental LC-ESI-ITFT MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental LC-ESI-QQ CE:10 V MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental LC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental LC-ESI-QQ CE:20 V MS/MS Spectrum view
Experimental GC-EI-TOF MS/MS Spectrum view
References
References:
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  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219. Pubmed: 21051339 Link_out
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676. Pubmed: 21062828 Link_out
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160. Pubmed: 18846089 Link_out
  • Arevalo-Rodriguez, M., Calderon, I. L., Holmberg, S. (1999). "Mutations that cause threonine sensitivity identify catalytic and regulatory regions of the aspartate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Yeast 15:1331-1345. Pubmed: 10509015 Link_out
  • Vuralhan, Z., Morais, M. A., Tai, S. L., Piper, M. D., Pronk, J. T. (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534-4541. Pubmed: 12902239 Link_out
  • Takada, Y., Noguchi, T. (1985). "Characteristics of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a regulatory enzyme in the glyoxylate pathway of glycine and serine biosynthesis from tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates." Biochem J 231:157-163. Pubmed: 3933486 Link_out
  • Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
  • Hans, M. A., Heinzle, E., Wittmann, C. (2003). "Free intracellular amino acid pools during autonomous oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biotechnol Bioeng 82:143-151. Pubmed: 12584756 Link_out
  • Dickinson, J. R., Lanterman, M. M., Danner, D. J., Pearson, B. M., Sanz, P., Harrison, S. J., Hewlins, M. J. (1997). "A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the metabolism of leucine to isoamyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 272:26871-26878. Pubmed: 9341119 Link_out
  • Cavero, S., Vozza, A., del Arco, A., Palmieri, L., Villa, A., Blanco, E., Runswick, M. J., Walker, J. E., Cerdan, S., Palmieri, F., Satrustegui, J. (2003). "Identification and metabolic role of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Microbiol 50:1257-1269. Pubmed: 14622413 Link_out
  • Crombie, T., Boyle, J. P., Coggins, J. R., Brown, A. J. (1994). "The folding of the bifunctional TRP3 protein in yeast is influenced by a translational pause which lies in a region of structural divergence with Escherichia coli indoleglycerol-phosphate synthase." Eur J Biochem 226:657-664. Pubmed: 8001582 Link_out
  • Moreira dos Santos, M., Thygesen, G., Kotter, P., Olsson, L., Nielsen, J. (2003). "Aerobic physiology of redox-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains modified in the ammonium assimilation for increased NADPH availability." FEMS Yeast Res 4:59-68. Pubmed: 14554197 Link_out
  • Watzele, G., Tanner, W. (1989). "Cloning of the glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase gene from yeast. Pheromonal regulation of its transcription." J Biol Chem 264:8753-8758. Pubmed: 2656689 Link_out
  • Verleur, N., Elgersma, Y., Van Roermund, C. W., Tabak, H. F., Wanders, R. J. (1997). "Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase encoded by the AAT2 gene is targeted to the peroxisomes in oleate-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 247:972-980. Pubmed: 9288922 Link_out
  • Belhumeur, P., Fortin, N., Clark, M. W. (1994). "A gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which codes for a protein with significant homology to the bacterial 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase." Yeast 10:385-389. Pubmed: 8017107 Link_out
  • ter Schure, E. G., Sillje, H. H., Vermeulen, E. E., Kalhorn, J. W., Verkleij, A. J., Boonstra, J., Verrips, C. T. (1998). "Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 5):1451-1462. Pubmed: 9611819 Link_out
  • Kispal, G., Steiner, H., Court, D. A., Rolinski, B., Lill, R. (1996). "Mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain amino acid transaminases from yeast, homologs of the myc oncogene-regulated Eca39 protein." J Biol Chem 271:24458-24464. Pubmed: 8798704 Link_out
  • Bayly, A. M., Berglez, J. M., Patel, O., Castelli, L. A., Hankins, E. G., Coloe, P., Hopkins Sibley, C., Macreadie, I. G. (2001). "Folic acid utilisation related to sulfa drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." FEMS Microbiol Lett 204:387-390. Pubmed: 11731153 Link_out
  • Ramos, F., Dubois, E., Pierard, A. (1988). "Control of enzyme synthesis in the lysine biosynthetic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evidence for a regulatory role of gene LYS14." Eur J Biochem 171:171-176. Pubmed: 3123231 Link_out
  • Nookaew, I., Jewett, M. C., Meechai, A., Thammarongtham, C., Laoteng, K., Cheevadhanarak, S., Nielsen, J., Bhumiratana, S. (2008). "The genome-scale metabolic model iIN800 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its validation: a scaffold to query lipid metabolism." BMC Syst Biol 2:71. Pubmed: 18687109 Link_out
  • Cherest, H., Thomas, D., Surdin-Kerjan, Y. (2000). "Polyglutamylation of folate coenzymes is necessary for methionine biosynthesis and maintenance of intact mitochondrial genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 275:14056-14063. Pubmed: 10799479 Link_out
  • Dickinson, J. R., Harrison, S. J., Hewlins, M. J. (1998). "An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273:25751-25756. Pubmed: 9748245 Link_out
  • Tzagoloff, A., Shtanko, A. (1995). "Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic isoleucyl-, glutamyl- and arginyl-tRNA synthetases of yeast are encoded by separate genes." Eur J Biochem 230:582-586. Pubmed: 7607232 Link_out
  • Iraqui, I., Vissers, S., Cartiaux, M., Urrestarazu, A. (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257:238-248. Pubmed: 9491083 Link_out
  • Valenzuela, L., Ballario, P., Aranda, C., Filetici, P., Gonzalez, A. (1998). "Regulation of expression of GLT1, the gene encoding glutamate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 180:3533-3540. Pubmed: 9657994 Link_out
  • Brandriss, M. C., Magasanik, B. (1979). "Genetics and physiology of proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: enzyme induction by proline." J Bacteriol 140:498-503. Pubmed: 387737 Link_out
  • Coleman, S. T., Fang, T. K., Rovinsky, S. A., Turano, F. J., Moye-Rowley, W. S. (2001). "Expression of a glutamate decarboxylase homologue is required for normal oxidative stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 276:244-250. Pubmed: 11031268 Link_out
  • Gancedo, J. M., Gancedo, C. (1973). "Concentrations of intermediary metabolites in yeast." Biochimie 55:205-211. Pubmed: 4578278 Link_out
  • Castrillo, J. I., Zeef, L. A., Hoyle, D. C., Zhang, N., Hayes, A., Gardner, D. C., Cornell, M. J., Petty, J., Hakes, L., Wardleworth, L., Rash, B., Brown, M., Dunn, W. B., Broadhurst, D., O'Donoghue, K., Hester, S. S., Dunkley, T. P., Hart, S. R., Swainston, N., Li, P., Gaskell, S. J., Paton, N. W., Lilley, K. S., Kell, D. B., Oliver, S. G. (2007). "Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast." J Biol 6:4. Pubmed: 17439666 Link_out
Synthesis Reference: Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
External Links:
Resource Link
CHEBI ID: 16015 Link_out
HMDB ID: HMDB00148 Link_out
Pubchem Compound ID: 33032 Link_out
Kegg ID: C00025 Link_out
ChemSpider ID: 30572 Link_out
Wikipedia: Glutamic_acid Link_out
BioCyc ID: GLT Link_out

Enzymes
Name: Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase
Reactions:
  • ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ADE6 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38972 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Putative glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing]
Reactions:
  • L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID: A2P2R3 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anthranilate synthase component 2
Reactions:
  • Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
  • 1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxy-D-ribulose 5-phosphate = 1-C-(3-indolyl)-glycerol 3-phosphate + CO(2) + H(2)O.
Gene Name: TRP3 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P00937 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing]
Reactions:
  • L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
Gene Name: GFA1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P14742 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase arginine-specific small chain
Reactions:
  • 2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
Gene Name: CPA1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P07258 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase hisHF
Reactions:
  • 5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine = imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
Gene Name: HIS7 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P33734 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Protein URA1
Reactions:
  • 2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
  • Carbamoyl phosphate + L-aspartate = phosphate + N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate.
Gene Name: URA2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P07259 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit A, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine = ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: HER2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q03557 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase arginine-specific large chain
Reactions:
  • 2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
Gene Name: CPA2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P03965 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: CTP synthase 1
Reactions:
  • ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
Gene Name: URA7 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P28274 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamine synthetase
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
Gene Name: GLN1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P32288 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine = ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: PET112 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P33893 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Anthranilate synthase component 1
Reactions:
  • Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: TRP2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P00899 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
Reactions:
  • ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: GUA1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38625 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing] 1
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ASN1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P49089 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamate synthase [NADH]
Reactions:
  • 2 L-glutamate + NAD(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADH.
Gene Name: GLT1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q12680 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing] 2
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ASN2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P49090 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Amidophosphoribosyltransferase
Reactions:
  • 5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.
Gene Name: ADE4 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P04046 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: CTP synthase 2
Reactions:
  • ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
Gene Name: URA8 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38627 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Aminodeoxychorismate synthase
Reactions:
  • Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ABZ1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P37254 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase
Reactions:
  • ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: QNS1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38795 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit F, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine = ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID: P53260 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Probable kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase BNA3
Reactions:
  • L-kynurenine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: BNA3 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P47039 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Saccharopine dehydrogenase [NADP+, L-glutamate-forming]
Reactions:
  • N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NADP(+) + H(2)O = L-glutamate + L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADPH.
Gene Name: LYS9 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38999 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Acetylornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ARG8 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P18544 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Arginine biosynthesis bifunctional protein ArgJ, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + L-glutamate = L-ornithine + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
  • Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ARG7 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q04728 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic
Reactions:
  • L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
  • 2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
  • 2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
Gene Name: BAT2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P47176 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
  • 2-oxoglutaric acid + L-isoleucine = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
  • 2-oxoglutaric acid + L-valine = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid + L-glutamic acid.
Gene Name: BAT1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38891 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Amino-acid acetyltransferase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ARG2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P40360 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamate--cysteine ligase
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine.
Gene Name: GSH1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P32477 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase
Reactions:
  • L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-(imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: HIS5 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P07172 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Phosphoserine aminotransferase
Reactions:
  • O-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-phosphonooxypyruvate + L-glutamate.
  • 4-phosphonooxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: SER1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P33330 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Folylpolyglutamate synthase 1
Reactions:
  • ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
Gene Name: FOL3 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q12676 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase
Reactions:
  • L-glutamate + H(2)O + NAD(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADH.
Gene Name: GDH2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P33327 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase 2
Reactions:
  • L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
Gene Name: GDH3 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P39708 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase 1
Reactions:
  • L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
Gene Name: GDH1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P07262 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu).
Gene Name: MSE1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P48525 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Uncharacterized protein YKL215C
Reactions:
  • ATP + 5-oxo-L-proline + 2 H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID: P28273 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamate 5-kinase
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamate = ADP + L-glutamate 5-phosphate.
Gene Name: PRO1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P32264 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Probable folylpolyglutamate synthase
Reactions:
  • ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
Gene Name: RMA1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P36001 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Aromatic amino acid aminotransferase 2
Reactions:
  • An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ARO9 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P38840 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Aromatic amino acid aminotransferase 1
Reactions:
  • An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
  • L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-oxoadipate + L-glutamate
Gene Name: ARO8 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P53090 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 H(2)O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H.
Gene Name: PUT2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P07275 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: AAT1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q01802 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic
Reactions:
  • L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: AAT2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P23542 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Probable alanine aminotransferase
Reactions:
  • L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ALT2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P52892 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase
Reactions:
  • 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: UGA1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P17649 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Probable alanine aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
  • L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
Gene Name: ALT1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P52893 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Gamma-glutamyltransferase
Reactions:
  • (5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = peptide + 5-L-glutamyl amino acid.
Gene Name: ECM38 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q05902 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamate decarboxylase
Reactions:
  • L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
Gene Name: GAD1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q04792 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Ornithine aminotransferase
Reactions:
  • L-ornithine + a 2-oxo acid = L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + an L-amino acid.
Gene Name: CAR2 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P07991 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Folylpolyglutamate synthase
Reactions:
  • ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
Gene Name: MET7 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q08645 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic
Reactions:
  • ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu).
Gene Name: GUS1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P46655 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA

Transporters
Name: General amino-acid permease GAP1
Function: Permease for various amino acids as well as for GABA. Can also transport L-cysteine and beta-alanine
Gene Name: GAP1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P19145 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dicarboxylic amino acid permease
Function: Can transport glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, asparagine, serine, alanine and glycine
Gene Name: DIP5 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P53388 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: General amino acid permease AGP1
Function: Broad substrate range permease which transports asparagine and glutamine with intermediate specificity. Also transports Ala, Cys, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Tyr and Val. Important for the utilization of amino acids as a nitrogen source
Gene Name: AGP1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P25376 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: General amino acid permease AGP3
Function: General amino acid permease with broad substrate specificity
Gene Name: AGP3 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P43548 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter AGC1
Function: Calcium-dependent mitochondrial aspartate and glutamate carrier. Transport of glutamate in mitochondria is required for mitochondrial transamination reactions and ornithine synthesis. Plays also a role in malate-aspartate NADH shuttle, which is critical for growth on acetate and fatty acids
Gene Name: AGC1 Link_out
Uniprot ID: Q12482 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Vacuolar amino acid transporter 6
Function: Involved in amino acid efflux from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. Capable of transporting aspartate and glutamate. Requires ATP for function
Gene Name: AVT6 Link_out
Uniprot ID: P40074 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA