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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00220
NameThiamine
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionThiamine, also known as aneurin or vitamin B1, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. Thiamines are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone. Thiamine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Thiamine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Thiamine is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aneurin
  • Antiberiberi factor
  • Apate drops
  • Beatine
  • Bedome
  • Begiolan
  • Benerva
  • Bequin
  • Berin
  • Betalin s
  • Betaxin
  • Bethiazine
  • Beuion
  • Bevitex
  • Bevitine
  • Bewon
  • Biamine
  • Bithiamin
  • Biuno
  • Bivatin
  • Bivita
  • Cernevit-12
  • Clotiamina
  • Eskapen
  • Eskaphen
  • Hybee
  • Lixa-beta
  • Metabolin
  • Slowten
  • THD
  • Thiadoxine
  • Thiamin
  • Thiaminal
  • Thiaminium
  • Thiamol
  • Thiavit
  • Tiamidon
  • Tiaminal
  • Trophite
  • Vetalin S
  • VIB
  • Vinothiam
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitaneuron
  • 3-(4-AMINO-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-4-methyl-thiazol-3-ium
  • Thiamine(1+) ion
  • Mononitrate, thiamine
  • Thiamine mononitrate
  • Vitamin b 1
CAS number59-43-8
WeightAverage: 265.355
Monoisotopic: 265.112306876
InChI KeyJZRWCGZRTZMZEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C12H17N4OS/c1-8-11(3-4-17)18-7-16(8)6-10-5-14-9(2)15-12(10)13/h5,7,17H,3-4,6H2,1-2H3,(H2,13,14,15)/q+1
IUPAC Name3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium
Traditional IUPAC Namethiamine
Chemical FormulaC12H17N4OS
SMILES[H]OC([H])([H])C([H])([H])C1=C([N+](=C([H])S1)C([H])([H])C1=C(N=C(N=C1[H])C([H])([H])[H])N([H])[H])C([H])([H])[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. Thiamines are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentThiamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Thiamine
  • 4,5-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Azole
  • Thiazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge1
Melting point248 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility500 mg/mL [MERCK INDEX (1996); approx.]PhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.015 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.91 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity73.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability28.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • extracellular
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
BitterFDB008424
SMPDB Pathways
Vitamin B1/Thiamine metabolismPW002486 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Thiamine metabolismec00730 Map00730
SMPDB Reactions
Thiamine monophosphate + waterThiamine + phosphate
Thiamine + Adenosine triphosphatehydron + Adenosine monophosphate + Thiamine pyrophosphate
KEGG Reactions
water + thiamine(1+) diphosphate(1-) Thiamine + phosphate + hydron
Thiamine monophosphate + waterThiamine + phosphate
Thiamine monophosphate + water Thiamine + phosphate
Thiamine + waterhydron + 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine + 5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole
Adenosine triphosphate + ThiamineAdenosine monophosphate + thiamine(1+) diphosphate(1-) + hydron
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationSubstrateGrowth ConditionsStrainCitation
0.188 ± 0.0 µM hops, malted barleyanaerobicBaker's yeastAlcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
0.005 ± 0.0 µM grape juiceanaerobicBaker's yeastAlcoholic beverage, wine, table, red - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
Conversion Details Here
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00e9-3890000000-9f8b525433ab279ad512JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9442000000-05ab93d3afb7b6f538e9JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000i-0109000000-48864f31ba475645654bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-05o1-9200000000-2ec0f3e9e364cffde16eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0aou-9000000000-0184506492d9f5b68b97JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-872150be83cbd75d8ecfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0930000000-ecf71c75bdea859139d5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d9113fdc633fb1ccbb5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-4a8016299623af0c3027JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-773912c9f325c419c77dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0390000000-95f3ca57c95542bdc7e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-e079d1fc1e06396dc524JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-ebb16d4f204f291b9a3aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00e9-4900000000-ad4d4779d76b9edb7ec5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-001i-9600000000-b631eed5be831527fc17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-50f2f613f576814eb627JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-002b-0900000000-2f184bbfec6bc0ef00c6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-35bc744495a2570a565fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-d8a7ac327273c32b4524JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-ca80ef6513c61be5b5e9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-872150be83cbd75d8ecfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0190000000-183af2449d1439af9825JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-2230ebc7c6b73192c26fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-7920000000-75670df9647a475ca92cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-3090000000-d0ff9a733629a86b75c7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03dj-3690000000-db3f204af490d7e1722eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0005-9000000000-5196f2b4daab995967bfJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Kawasaki, Y., Onozuka, M., Mizote, T., Nosaka, K. (2005). "Biosynthesis of hydroxymethylpyrimidine pyrophosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Curr Genet 47:156-162.15614489
  • Alcoholic beverage, beer, regular, all - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
  • Alcoholic beverage, wine, table, red - U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
Synthesis Reference:Sugimoto, Hirohiko; Ishiba, Teruyuki; Sato, Tomohiro; Nakai, Hiroshi; Hirai, Kentaro. Novel S-alkylation products from "isolated thiamin ylide" via thiaminium neothiaminthiolate ion pair. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1990), 55(2), 467-70.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID18385
HMDB IDHMDB00235
Pubchem Compound ID1130
Kegg IDC00378
ChemSpider ID73580
FOODB IDFDB008424
WikipediaThiamine
BioCyc IDTHIAMINE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O = an alcohol + phosphate
Gene Name:
PHO11
Uniprot ID:
P35842
Molecular weight:
52757.39844
Reactions
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O → an alcohol + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Partially mediates extracellular nucleotide derived phosphate hydrolysis along with NPP1 and NPP2
Gene Name:
PHO5
Uniprot ID:
P00635
Molecular weight:
52858.10156
Reactions
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O → an alcohol + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in thiamine diphosphokinase activity
Specific function:
Essential protein, it is the only enzyme in yeast capable of synthesizing thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
Gene Name:
THI80
Uniprot ID:
P35202
Molecular weight:
36615.69922
Reactions
ATP + thiamine → AMP + thiamine diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P) to HMP-PP, and also probaby that of HMP to HMP- P
Gene Name:
THI20
Uniprot ID:
Q08224
Molecular weight:
61268.89844
Reactions
ATP + 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine → ADP + 4-amino-5-phosphonooxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine.
ATP + 4-amino-2-methyl-5-phosphomethylpyrimidine → ADP + 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphomethylpyrimidine.
thiamine + H2O → 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine + 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole.
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Integrase (IN) targets the VLP to the nucleus, where a subparticle preintegration complex (PIC) containing at least integrase and the newly synthesized dsDNA copy of the retrotransposon must transit the nuclear membrane. Once in the nucleus, integrase performs the integration of the dsDNA into the host genome
Gene Name:
TY2B-OR1
Uniprot ID:
Q12113
Molecular weight:
201982.0
Reactions
Deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) → diphosphate + DNA(n+1).
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O = an alcohol + phosphate
Gene Name:
PHO3
Uniprot ID:
P24031
Molecular weight:
52776.10156
Reactions
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O → an alcohol + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O = an alcohol + phosphate
Gene Name:
PHO12
Uniprot ID:
P38693
Molecular weight:
52699.30078
Reactions
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O → an alcohol + phosphate.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Responsible for intake of thiamine
Gene Name:
THI7
Uniprot ID:
Q05998
Molecular weight:
66903.29688
General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Responsible for intake of thiamine
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q08485
Molecular weight:
67192.89844