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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00169
Name3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvic acid
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionIndolepyruvate belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an indole ring. Indolepyruvate is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (Indol-3-yl)pyruvate
  • (indol-3-yl)pyruvic acid
  • 1H-Indole-3-propanoic acid, &alpha
  • 1H-Indole-3-propanoic acid, alpha-oxo-
  • 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-oxopropanoic acid
  • 3-(Indol-3-yl)pyruvate
  • 3-Indolepyruvic acid
  • 3-Indolylpyroracemic acid
  • 3-Indolylpyruvic acid
  • beta-Indolepyruvic acid
  • beta-Indolylpyruvic acid
  • Indole-3-pyruvate
  • indole-3-pyruvic acid
  • indole-3-pyruvic acid monohydrate
  • Indolepyruvate
  • Indolepyruvic acid
  • Indolyl-3-pyruvate
  • 3-(indol-3-yl)Pyruvic acid
  • indol-3-yl Pyruvic acid
CAS number392-12-1
WeightAverage: 203.1941
Monoisotopic: 203.058243159
InChI KeyRSTKLPZEZYGQPY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C11H9NO3/c13-10(11(14)15)5-7-6-12-9-4-2-1-3-8(7)9/h1-4,6,12H,5H2,(H,14,15)
IUPAC Name3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxopropanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvic acid
Chemical FormulaC11H9NO3
SMILESOC(=O)C(=O)CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C12
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an indole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Indolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Keto acid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Benzenoid
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Charge0
Melting pointNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water SolubilityNot AvailablePhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.24 g/LALOGPS
logP1.71ALOGPS
logP2ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area70.16 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity53.8 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability19.72 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Tryptophan metabolismPW002442 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Tryptophan metabolismec00380 Map00380
SMPDB ReactionsNot Available
KEGG Reactions
hydron + 3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvic acidIndoleacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide
Oxoglutaric acid + L-TryptophanL-Glutamic acid + 3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvic acid
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-0fai-7893000000-84ffd1f401950f7c3032JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-0ugi-3794000000-a5d8cc3579802f2ca961JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fai-7893000000-84ffd1f401950f7c3032JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ugi-3794000000-a5d8cc3579802f2ca961JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fai-1931000000-16c0a60dd32e65b8873aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0kai-3900000000-a55cf7c697b6ffbaee85JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fl3-7590000000-c3dd0d149f021914d6e1JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-1ec34b082b3a3f565a12JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0970000000-e68c2677119696ab9346JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00kf-0900000000-2b64ec50aa8f1360ff4dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-ea3949db3c6da8240de8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-4900000000-95c91da39b950494114aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-2920000000-9230f7ccfaaaffa71949JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f80-0930000000-593d7099407afc68b969JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05o9-0900000000-2ad84f63cbf77a1baa8fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-6368dc05fa719d5e285aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1590000000-279e5b29f5fe92cccc07JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a59-1910000000-8f926dbcc372f4b220f7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0aou-2900000000-431d30e582a7ac0a4805JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Vuralhan, Z., Morais, M. A., Tai, S. L., Piper, M. D., Pronk, J. T. (2003). "Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4534-4541.12902239
  • Iraqui, I., Vissers, S., Cartiaux, M., Urrestarazu, A. (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257:238-248.9491083
  • Dickinson, J. R., Salgado, L. E., Hewlins, M. J. (2003). "The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 278:8028-8034.12499363
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID29750
HMDB IDHMDB0060484
Pubchem Compound ID803
Kegg IDC00331
ChemSpider ID781
FOODB IDFDB030941
Wikipedia IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Second most abundant of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
PDC5
Uniprot ID:
P16467
Molecular weight:
61911.60156
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Minor of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins. The expression level of this protein in the presence of fermentable carbon sources is so low that it can not compensate for the other two pyruvate decarboxylases to sustain fermentation
Gene Name:
PDC6
Uniprot ID:
P26263
Molecular weight:
61579.89844
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Major of three pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6) implicated in the nonoxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation. Most of the produced acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol, but some is required for cytosolic acetyl-CoA production for biosynthetic pathways. The enzyme is also one of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) able to decarboxylate more complex 2-oxo acids (alpha-ketoacids) than pyruvate, which seem mainly involved in amino acid catabolism. Here the enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids. In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan, whereas leucine is no substrate. In a side-reaction the carbanionic intermediate (or active aldehyde) generated by decarboxylation or by activation of an aldehyde can react with an aldehyde via condensation (or carboligation) yielding a 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
PDC1
Uniprot ID:
P06169
Molecular weight:
61494.89844
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
Pyruvate → Acetaldehyde + CO(2).
A 2-oxo acid + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone + CO(2).
An aldehyde + an aldehyde → A 2-hydroxy ketone.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
One of five 2-oxo acid decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3) involved in amino acid catabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of amino acids, which, in a first step, have been transaminated to the corresponding 2-oxo acids (alpha-keto-acids). In a third step, the resulting aldehydes are reduced to alcohols, collectively referred to as fusel oils or alcohols. Its preferred substrates are the transaminated amino acids, phenylalanine, tryptophan, (and probably tyrosine), but also isoleucine, whereas leucine is a low efficiency and valine and pyruvate are no substrates. In analogy to the pyruvate decarboxylases the enzyme may in a side-reaction catalyze condensation (or carboligation) reactions leading to the formation of 2-hydroxy ketone, collectively called acyloins
Gene Name:
ARO10
Uniprot ID:
Q06408
Molecular weight:
71383.79688
Reactions
A 2-oxo acid → an aldehyde + CO(2).
Phenylpyruvate → phenylacetaldehyde + CO(2).
3-(indol-3-yl)pyruvate → 2-(indol-3-yl)acetaldehyde + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Has aromatic amino acid transaminase activity and kynurenine aminotransferase activity
Gene Name:
ARO9
Uniprot ID:
P38840
Molecular weight:
58527.0
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate → an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Has aromatic amino acid transaminase activity. Also active with methionine, alpha-aminoadipate and leucine when phenylpyruvate is the amino acceptor
Gene Name:
ARO8
Uniprot ID:
P53090
Molecular weight:
56177.30078
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate → an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
L-2-aminoadipate + 2-oxoglutarate → 2-oxoadipate + L-glutamate