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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00072
NameD-Galactose
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionD-Galactose, also known as alpha-D-gal or ALPHA D-galactose, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. D-Galactose is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). D-Galactose exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. D-Galactose is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-Galactose
  • 5abp
  • 8abp
  • Alpha d-galactose
  • Alpha-d-galactopyranose
  • Alpha-d-galactose
  • D-(+)-Galactose
  • D-Galactose
  • d-hexose
  • GAL
  • Galactose
  • Galactose (NF)
  • GLA
  • GLC
  • Hexose
  • alpha-D-Gal
  • Gal-alpha
  • a D-GALACTOSE
  • Α D-galactose
  • a-D-Gal
  • Α-D-gal
  • Gal-a
  • Gal-α
  • a-D-Galactose
  • Α-D-galactose
  • SHU 508 a
  • SH-TA-508
  • SHU 508
  • Levovist
  • SHU-508
CAS number59-23-4
WeightAverage: 180.1559
Monoisotopic: 180.063388116
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional IUPAC Namegalactose
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
SMILES[H]OC([H])([H])[C@@]1([H])O[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@@]([H])(O[H])[C@@]1([H])O[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point170 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility683 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm, Extracellular
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismPW002413 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Leloir PathwayPW002397 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismec00520 Map00520
Galactose metabolismec00052 Map00052
SMPDB Reactions
Beta-D-GalactoseD-Galactose
Adenosine triphosphate + D-GalactoseADP + hydron + Galactose 1-phosphate
Galactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0) + D-Galactose ← Galabiosylceramide (d18:1/22:0)
KEGG Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-GalactoseGalactose 1-phosphate + hydron + ADP
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, negativesplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad168701JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad168701JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-2448926b508622464fe7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-056r-8900000000-4c073cb93b78120113e6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-ece70093ab5d3c331ac4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01qa-0900000000-04ceb34d441ff6a75763JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9400000000-a8f1ceab155611f949c1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01ow-9000000000-358f68fc2b7a72c27546JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • DOUGLAS, H. C., HAWTHORNE, D. C. (1964). "ENZYMATIC EXPRESSION AND GENETIC LINKAGE OF GENES CONTROLLING GALACTOSE UTILIZATION IN SACCHAROMYCES." Genetics 49:837-844.14158615
  • Luttik, M. A., Overkamp, K. M., Kotter, P., de Vries, S., van Dijken, J. P., Pronk, J. T. (1998). "The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDE1 and NDE2 genes encode separate mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases catalyzing the oxidation of cytosolic NADH." J Biol Chem 273:24529-24534.9733747
Synthesis Reference: Avigad, Gad. Synthesis of D-galactose-6-t and D-galactosides-6-t. Carbohydrate Research (1967), 3(4), 430-4.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID28061
HMDB IDHMDB00143
Pubchem Compound ID439357
Kegg IDC00124
ChemSpider ID23184483
FOODB IDFDB021787
WikipediaGalactose
BioCyc IDGALACTOSE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
ATP + D-galactose = ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1- phosphate
Gene Name:
GAL1
Uniprot ID:
P04385
Molecular weight:
57943.80078
Reactions
ATP + D-galactose → ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Main glucose phosphorylating enzyme. May play a regulatory role in both induction and repression of gene expression by glucose
Gene Name:
HXK2
Uniprot ID:
P04807
Molecular weight:
53942.0
Reactions
ATP + D-hexose → ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
ATP + D-fructose → ADP + D-fructose 1-phosphate
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q06204
Molecular weight:
48968.80078
Reactions
ATP + D-hexose → ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
HXK1
Uniprot ID:
P04806
Molecular weight:
53737.89844
Reactions
ATP + D-hexose → ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
ATP + D-fructose → ADP + D-fructose 1-phosphate
General function:
Involved in isomerase activity
Specific function:
Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose
Gene Name:
GAL10
Uniprot ID:
P04397
Molecular weight:
78194.70313
Reactions
UDP-glucose → UDP-galactose.
Alpha-D-glucose → beta-D-glucose.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT9
Uniprot ID:
P40885
Molecular weight:
62857.19922
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT14
Uniprot ID:
P42833
Molecular weight:
60978.10156
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
GAL2 is a facilitated diffusion transporter required for both the high-affinity galactokinase-dependent and low-affinity galactokinase-independent galactose transport processes
Gene Name:
GAL2
Uniprot ID:
P13181
Molecular weight:
63625.39844
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
STL1
Uniprot ID:
P39932
Molecular weight:
63531.19922
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT11
Uniprot ID:
P54862
Molecular weight:
62732.19922
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT10
Uniprot ID:
P43581
Molecular weight:
60661.5