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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00072
NameD-Galactose
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionD-Galactose, also known as alpha-D-gal or ALPHA D-galactose, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. D-Galactose is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). D-Galactose exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. D-Galactose is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-Galactose
  • 5abp
  • 8abp
  • Alpha d-galactose
  • Alpha-d-galactopyranose
  • Alpha-d-galactose
  • D-(+)-Galactose
  • D-Galactose
  • d-hexose
  • GAL
  • Galactose
  • Galactose (NF)
  • GLA
  • GLC
  • Hexose
  • alpha-D-Gal
  • Gal-alpha
  • a D-GALACTOSE
  • Α D-galactose
  • a-D-Gal
  • Α-D-gal
  • Gal-a
  • Gal-α
  • a-D-Galactose
  • Α-D-galactose
  • SHU 508 a
  • SH-TA-508
  • SHU 508
  • Levovist
  • SHU-508
CAS number59-23-4
WeightAverage: 180.1559
Monoisotopic: 180.063388116
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional IUPAC Namegalactose
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
SMILES[H]OC([H])([H])[C@@]1([H])O[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@@]([H])(O[H])[C@@]1([H])O[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point170 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility683 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogPNot AvailablePhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm, Extracellular
Organoleptic PropertiesNot Available
SMPDB Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismPW002413 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Leloir PathwayPW002397 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismec00520 Map00520
Galactose metabolismec00052 Map00052
SMPDB Reactions
Beta-D-GalactoseD-Galactose
Adenosine triphosphate + D-GalactoseADP + hydron + Galactose 1-phosphate
Galactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0) + D-Galactose ← Galabiosylceramide (d18:1/22:0)
KEGG Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-GalactoseGalactose 1-phosphate + hydron + ADP
Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • DOUGLAS, H. C., HAWTHORNE, D. C. (1964). "ENZYMATIC EXPRESSION AND GENETIC LINKAGE OF GENES CONTROLLING GALACTOSE UTILIZATION IN SACCHAROMYCES." Genetics 49:837-844.14158615
  • Luttik, M. A., Overkamp, K. M., Kotter, P., de Vries, S., van Dijken, J. P., Pronk, J. T. (1998). "The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDE1 and NDE2 genes encode separate mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases catalyzing the oxidation of cytosolic NADH." J Biol Chem 273:24529-24534.9733747
Synthesis Reference: Avigad, Gad. Synthesis of D-galactose-6-t and D-galactosides-6-t. Carbohydrate Research (1967), 3(4), 430-4.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID28061
HMDB IDHMDB00143
Pubchem Compound ID439357
Kegg IDC00124
ChemSpider ID23184483
FOODB IDFDB012703
WikipediaGalactose
BioCyc IDGALACTOSE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
ATP + D-galactose = ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1- phosphate
Gene Name:
GAL1
Uniprot ID:
P04385
Molecular weight:
57943.80078
Reactions
ATP + D-galactose → ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Main glucose phosphorylating enzyme. May play a regulatory role in both induction and repression of gene expression by glucose
Gene Name:
HXK2
Uniprot ID:
P04807
Molecular weight:
53942.0
Reactions
ATP + D-hexose → ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
ATP + D-fructose → ADP + D-fructose 1-phosphate
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q06204
Molecular weight:
48968.80078
Reactions
ATP + D-hexose → ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
HXK1
Uniprot ID:
P04806
Molecular weight:
53737.89844
Reactions
ATP + D-hexose → ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.
ATP + D-fructose → ADP + D-fructose 1-phosphate
General function:
Involved in isomerase activity
Specific function:
Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose
Gene Name:
GAL10
Uniprot ID:
P04397
Molecular weight:
78194.70313
Reactions
UDP-glucose → UDP-galactose.
Alpha-D-glucose → beta-D-glucose.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT9
Uniprot ID:
P40885
Molecular weight:
62857.19922
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT14
Uniprot ID:
P42833
Molecular weight:
60978.10156
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
GAL2 is a facilitated diffusion transporter required for both the high-affinity galactokinase-dependent and low-affinity galactokinase-independent galactose transport processes
Gene Name:
GAL2
Uniprot ID:
P13181
Molecular weight:
63625.39844
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
STL1
Uniprot ID:
P39932
Molecular weight:
63531.19922
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT11
Uniprot ID:
P54862
Molecular weight:
62732.19922
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable glucose transporter
Gene Name:
HXT10
Uniprot ID:
P43581
Molecular weight:
60661.5