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Identification
YMDB IDYMDB00002
NameL-Glutamine
SpeciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae
StrainBaker's yeast
DescriptionGlutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q) is an alpha-amino acid. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. It is classified as a polar amino acid, because of the hydrophilic nature of its alkyl-amide or alkyl-carboxamide side chain. Glutamine can be considered the amide of glutamic acid. Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions including protein synthesis, cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose, 2) Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes and 3) Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle. Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. During fermentation of wine, glutamate, glutamine and most of the amino acids are practically depleted from the grape juice/ grape must (the juice component including skins, seeds and stems) by the time the first 30 g of sugar have been fermented. Alanine and arginine are the principle amino acids found in grape must. Yeast make use of these two amino acids and ammonium (slightly) after the depletion of the other amino acids. Yeast then assimilate arginine only after the disappearance of ammonium from the grape must/juice. Yeasts do not utilize proline during fermentation although it is one of the principle amino acids found in must. During fermentation, yeasts assimilate between 1 and 2 g/L of amino acids. Towards the end of fermentation, yeasts excrete significant but variable amounts of different amino acids. Finally at the end of alcoholic fermentation, a few hundred mg/L of amino acids remain with proline generally represents half.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoate
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
  • (2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoate
  • (2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
  • (S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoate
  • (S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
  • 2-Aminoglutaramic acid
  • Cebrogen
  • D Glutamine
  • D-Glutamine
  • gamma-glutamine
  • Glavamin
  • Glumin
  • Glutamate 5-amide
  • Glutamate amide
  • Glutamic acid 5-amide
  • Glutamic acid amide
  • Glutamine
  • L Glutamine
  • L-(+)-glutamine
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramate
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramic acid
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramidic acid
  • L-Glutamate g-amide
  • L-Glutamate gamma-amide
  • L-Glutamate γ-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid 5-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid g-amide
  • L-glutamic acid gamma-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid γ-amide
  • L-Glutamid
  • L-glutamide
  • L-Glutamin
  • L-glutamine
  • L-Glutaminsaeure-5-amid
  • Levoglutamid
  • Levoglutamida
  • Levoglutamide
  • Levoglutamidum
  • Levoglutamina
  • Polyglutamine
  • Q
  • Stimulina
  • Nutrestore
CAS number56-85-9
WeightAverage: 146.1445
Monoisotopic: 146.069142196
InChI KeyZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChIInChI=1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC NameL-glutamine
Chemical FormulaC5H10N2O3
SMILES[H]OC(=O)[C@@]([H])(N([H])[H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C(=O)N([H])[H]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Charge0
Melting point185 °C
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Water Solubility41.3 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP-3.64 [CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility97.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-4ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.41 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity33.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • extracellular
  • nucleus
  • vacuole
  • cytoplasm
Organoleptic Properties
Flavour/OdourSource
CocoaFDB030965
CustardFDB030965
MildFDB030965
MilkyFDB030965
OilyFDB030965
SMPDB Pathways
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismPW002413 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Asparagine metabolismPW002274 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Glutamate MetabolismPW002376 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Histidine BiosynthesisPW002418 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
NAD metabolismPW002421 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolismec00250 Map00250
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolismec00520 Map00520
Arginine and proline metabolismec00330 Map00330
Nitrogen metabolismec00910 Map00910
Purine metabolismec00230 Map00230
SMPDB Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + water + Adenosine triphosphate + L-GlutamineL-Asparagine + hydron + Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + waterAdenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid
L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + hydron + NADHL-Glutamic acid + NAD
Beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate + L-GlutamineGlucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid
Chorismate + L-GlutamineL-Glutamic acid + 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate
KEGG Reactions
Chorismate + L-Glutamine4-amino-4-deoxychorismic acid + L-Glutamic acid
Chorismate + L-Glutamine2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + hydron
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + water + L-GlutamineAdenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid + hydron
Carbonic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + water + L-Glutaminephosphate + L-Glutamic acid + hydron + Carbamoylphosphate + ADP
Uridine triphosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + water + L-Glutaminephosphate + L-Glutamic acid + hydron + ADP + Cytidine triphosphate
Concentrations
Intracellular Concentrations
Intracellular ConcentrationSubstrateGrowth ConditionsStrainCitation
17140 ± 1971 µM Synthetic medium with 20 g/L glucoseaerobicBaker's yeastPMID: 12584756
2500 ± 500 µM Minimal medium supplemented with glucoseaerobic;resting cellsBaker's yeastPMID: 4578278
15000 ± 0 µM Minimal medium supplemented with ammonium and glucoseaerobic;growing cellsBaker's yeastPMID: 4578278
Conversion Details Here
Extracellular ConcentrationsNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
References
References:
  • UniProt Consortium (2011). "Ongoing and future developments at the Universal Protein Resource." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D214-D219.21051339
  • Scheer, M., Grote, A., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Munaretto, C., Rother, M., Sohngen, C., Stelzer, M., Thiele, J., Schomburg, D. (2011). "BRENDA, the enzyme information system in 2011." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D670-D676.21062828
  • Herrgard, M. J., Swainston, N., Dobson, P., Dunn, W. B., Arga, K. Y., Arvas, M., Bluthgen, N., Borger, S., Costenoble, R., Heinemann, M., Hucka, M., Le Novere, N., Li, P., Liebermeister, W., Mo, M. L., Oliveira, A. P., Petranovic, D., Pettifer, S., Simeonidis, E., Smallbone, K., Spasic, I., Weichart, D., Brent, R., Broomhead, D. S., Westerhoff, H. V., Kirdar, B., Penttila, M., Klipp, E., Palsson, B. O., Sauer, U., Oliver, S. G., Mendes, P., Nielsen, J., Kell, D. B. (2008). "A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology." Nat Biotechnol 26:1155-1160.18846089
  • Abadjieva, A., Pauwels, K., Hilven, P., Crabeel, M. (2001). "A new yeast metabolon involving at least the two first enzymes of arginine biosynthesis: acetylglutamate synthase activity requires complex formation with acetylglutamate kinase." J Biol Chem 276:42869-42880.11553611
  • Hans, M. A., Heinzle, E., Wittmann, C. (2003). "Free intracellular amino acid pools during autonomous oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biotechnol Bioeng 82:143-151.12584756
  • Ludmerer, S. W., Schimmel, P. (1985). "Cloning of GLN4: an essential gene that encodes glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 163:763-768.2991203
  • Nookaew, I., Jewett, M. C., Meechai, A., Thammarongtham, C., Laoteng, K., Cheevadhanarak, S., Nielsen, J., Bhumiratana, S. (2008). "The genome-scale metabolic model iIN800 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its validation: a scaffold to query lipid metabolism." BMC Syst Biol 2:71.18687109
  • Crombie, T., Boyle, J. P., Coggins, J. R., Brown, A. J. (1994). "The folding of the bifunctional TRP3 protein in yeast is influenced by a translational pause which lies in a region of structural divergence with Escherichia coli indoleglycerol-phosphate synthase." Eur J Biochem 226:657-664.8001582
  • ter Schure, E. G., Sillje, H. H., Vermeulen, E. E., Kalhorn, J. W., Verkleij, A. J., Boonstra, J., Verrips, C. T. (1998). "Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 5):1451-1462.9611819
  • Watzele, G., Tanner, W. (1989). "Cloning of the glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase gene from yeast. Pheromonal regulation of its transcription." J Biol Chem 264:8753-8758.2656689
  • Valenzuela, L., Ballario, P., Aranda, C., Filetici, P., Gonzalez, A. (1998). "Regulation of expression of GLT1, the gene encoding glutamate synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 180:3533-3540.9657994
  • Gancedo, J. M., Gancedo, C. (1973). "Concentrations of intermediary metabolites in yeast." Biochimie 55:205-211.4578278
  • Castrillo, J. I., Zeef, L. A., Hoyle, D. C., Zhang, N., Hayes, A., Gardner, D. C., Cornell, M. J., Petty, J., Hakes, L., Wardleworth, L., Rash, B., Brown, M., Dunn, W. B., Broadhurst, D., O'Donoghue, K., Hester, S. S., Dunkley, T. P., Hart, S. R., Swainston, N., Li, P., Gaskell, S. J., Paton, N. W., Lilley, K. S., Kell, D. B., Oliver, S. G. (2007). "Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast." J Biol 6:4.17439666
Synthesis Reference:Jiao, Qingcai; Qian, Shaosong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Xiaoyan. Synthesis of L-glutamine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 7 pp.
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID18050
HMDB IDHMDB00641
Pubchem Compound ID5961
Kegg IDC00064
ChemSpider ID5746
FOODB IDFDB030965
WikipediaGlutamine
BioCyc IDGLN

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D- ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2- (formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ADE6
Uniprot ID:
P38972
Molecular weight:
148904.0
Reactions
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O → ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Involved in amino sugar synthesis (formation of chitin, supplies the amino sugars of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins)
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A2P2R3
Molecular weight:
29272.0
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate → L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
TRP3
Uniprot ID:
P00937
Molecular weight:
53488.89844
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine → anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxy-D-ribulose 5-phosphate → 1-C-(3-indolyl)-glycerol 3-phosphate + CO(2) + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Involved in amino sugar synthesis (formation of chitin, supplies the amino sugars of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins)
Gene Name:
GFA1
Uniprot ID:
P14742
Molecular weight:
80046.0
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate → L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamine + tRNA(Gln) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln)
Gene Name:
GLN4
Uniprot ID:
P13188
Molecular weight:
93132.20313
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamine + tRNA(Gln) → AMP + diphosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
CPA1
Uniprot ID:
P07258
Molecular weight:
45361.19922
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O → 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
IGPS catalyzes the conversion of PRFAR and glutamine to IGP, AICAR and glutamate. The glutamine amidotransferase domain provides the ammonia necessary to the cyclase domain to produce IGP and AICAR from PRFAR
Gene Name:
HIS7
Uniprot ID:
P33734
Molecular weight:
61067.60156
Reactions
5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine → imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in carboxyl- or carbamoyltransferase activity
Specific function:
This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding three enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, and ATCase)
Gene Name:
URA2
Uniprot ID:
P07259
Molecular weight:
245124.0
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O → 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
Carbamoyl phosphate + L-aspartate → phosphate + N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate.
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln). Required for HMG2-induced ER-remodeling
Gene Name:
HER2
Uniprot ID:
Q03557
Molecular weight:
50918.0
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine → ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
CPA2
Uniprot ID:
P03965
Molecular weight:
123914.0
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O → 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
URA7
Uniprot ID:
P28274
Molecular weight:
64709.80078
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) → ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
GLN1
Uniprot ID:
P32288
Molecular weight:
41705.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) → ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln)
Gene Name:
PET112
Uniprot ID:
P33893
Molecular weight:
61842.19922
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine → ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
TRP2
Uniprot ID:
P00899
Molecular weight:
56767.0
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine → anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
GUA1
Uniprot ID:
P38625
Molecular weight:
58481.80078
Reactions
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN1
Uniprot ID:
P49089
Molecular weight:
64469.60156
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Forms L-glutamate from L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. Represents an alternative pathway to L-glutamate dehydrogenase for the biosynthesis of L-glutamate. Participates with glutamine synthetase in ammonia assimilation processes. The enzyme is specific for NADH, L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate
Gene Name:
GLT1
Uniprot ID:
Q12680
Molecular weight:
238100.0
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NAD(+) → L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADH.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
ASN2
Uniprot ID:
P49090
Molecular weight:
64592.5
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
ADE4
Uniprot ID:
P04046
Molecular weight:
56718.89844
Reactions
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate → L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen. Plays an important role in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis
Gene Name:
URA8
Uniprot ID:
P38627
Molecular weight:
63055.69922
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) → ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine. Required for the synthesis of 4-aminobenzoate (PABA), an important component in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis
Gene Name:
ABZ1
Uniprot ID:
P37254
Molecular weight:
88543.5
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine → 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
QNS1
Uniprot ID:
P38795
Molecular weight:
80684.89844
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + L-glutamine + H(2)O → AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+) + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Furnishes a means for formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu- tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho- Glu-tRNA(Gln)
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P53260
Molecular weight:
20786.80078
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamine → ADP + phosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + L-glutamate.

Transporters

General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in amino acid efflux from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. Capable of transporting large neutral amino acids including tyrosine, glutamine, asparagine, isoleucine and leucine
Gene Name:
AVT3
Uniprot ID:
P36062
Molecular weight:
75458.70313
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Required for the vacuolar uptake of large neutral amino acids including tyrosine, glutamine, asparagine, isoleucine and leucine. Requires ATP for function
Gene Name:
AVT1
Uniprot ID:
P47082
Molecular weight:
65345.30078
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Permease for various amino acids as well as for GABA. Can also transport L-cysteine and beta-alanine
Gene Name:
GAP1
Uniprot ID:
P19145
Molecular weight:
65654.89844
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
High affinity transport of glutamine. Also transport Leu, Ser, Thr, Cys, Met and Asn
Gene Name:
GNP1
Uniprot ID:
P48813
Molecular weight:
73597.39844
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in amino acid efflux from the vacuole to the cytoplasm. Capable of transporting large neutral amino acids including tyrosine, glutamine, asparagine, isoleucine and leucine
Gene Name:
AVT4
Uniprot ID:
P50944
Molecular weight:
80025.0
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Can transport glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, asparagine, serine, alanine and glycine
Gene Name:
DIP5
Uniprot ID:
P53388
Molecular weight:
68096.70313
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Broad substrate range permease which transports asparagine and glutamine with intermediate specificity. Also transports Ala, Cys, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Tyr and Val. Important for the utilization of amino acids as a nitrogen source
Gene Name:
AGP1
Uniprot ID:
P25376
Molecular weight:
69670.70313